The year 1646 in literature involved some significant events.
- March 24 - The King's Men petition Parliament for three and a half years' back pay; this is despite the London theatres officially remaining closed through the middle 1640s. No details of their activities in these years survive.
- May 5 - Martin Llewellyn's drama The King Found at Southwell is performed at Oxford; it is the last stage piece presented in the city before its surrender to Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War, June 22-4.
- John Lilburne is placed in the Tower of London for denouncing his former commander the Earl of Manchester as a traitor.
- Jacqueline Pascal is converted to Jansenism by her brother, Blaise Pascal.
- Anonymous (John Lilburne?) - London's Liberty in Chains Discovered
- Anonymous (John Lilburne?) - Vox Plebis, or the People's Outcry
- Sir Thomas Browne Pseudodoxia Epidemica or Vulgar Errors
- Thomas Fuller - Andronicus or the Unfortunate Politician
- Sir John Suckling - An Account of Religion by Reason published