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alemán árabe búlgaro checo chino coreano croata danés eslovaco esloveno español estonio farsi finlandés francés griego hebreo hindù húngaro indonesio inglés islandés italiano japonés letón lituano malgache neerlandés noruego polaco portugués rumano ruso serbio sueco tailandès turco vietnamita
alemán árabe búlgaro checo chino coreano croata danés eslovaco esloveno español estonio farsi finlandés francés griego hebreo hindù húngaro indonesio inglés islandés italiano japonés letón lituano malgache neerlandés noruego polaco portugués rumano ruso serbio sueco tailandès turco vietnamita

definición - Arab_League

Arab League (n.)

1.an international organization of independent Arab states formed in 1945 to promote cultural and economic and military and political and social cooperation

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Arab League

                   
League of Arab States
جامعة الدول العربية
Jāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya
Flag
Headquarters Cairo1
Official languages Literary Arabic
Membership
Leaders
 -  Arab League Secretariat Nabil Elaraby
 -  Arab Parliament Ali Al-Duqbasi
 -  Council Presidency  Iraq
Legislature Arab Parliament
Establishment
 -  Alexandria Protocol 22 March 1945 
Area
 -  Total area 13,333,296 km2 (2nd2)
5,148,048 sq mi 
Population
 -  2011 estimate 349,870,608 (3rd2)
 -  Density 24.33/km2 
63/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $4.766 trillion[1] 
 -  Per capita $7,682[citation needed] 
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total 3.526 trillion[citation needed] 
 -  Per capita $4,239[citation needed] 
Currency
Time zone (UTC+0 to +4)
Website
arableagueonline.org/
1 From 1979 to 1989: Tunis, Tunisia
2 If ranked among nation states.

The Arab League (Arabic: الجامعة العربيةal-Jāmiʻa al-ʻArabiyya), officially called the League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربيةJāmiʻat ad-Duwal al-ʻArabiyya), is a regional organisation of Arab states in North and Northeast Africa, and Southwest Asia (Middle East). It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a member on 5 May 1945. The Arab League currently has 22 members (including Syria, whose participation was suspended in November 2011). The main goal of the league is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries."[2]

Through institutions such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific and social programs designed to promote the interests of the Arab world.[3][4] It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes, and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter which sets out the principles for economic activities in the region.

Each member state has only one vote in the League Council, while decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic, and social programs of its members, and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defense and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defense measures.

The Arab League has played a role in shaping school curricula, advancing the role of women in the Arab societies, promoting child welfare, encouraging youth and sports programs, preserving Arab cultural heritage, and fostering cultural exchanges between the member states.[citation needed] Literacy campaigns have been launched, intellectual works reproduced, and modern technical terminology is translated for the use within member states. The league encourages measures against crime and drug abuse, and deals with labour issues—particularly among the emigrant Arab workforce.

Contents

  History

Following adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945. It aimed to be a regional organisation of Arab states with a focus to developing the economy, resolving disputes, and coordinating political aims.[5] Other countries joined the league at later dates.[6] Each country was given one vote in the council. The first major action was the joint intervention, allegedly on behalf of the majority Arab population that was being uprooted as the State of Israel emerged in 1948 (and in response to popular outcry in the Arab world), although in fact a main participant in this intervention, Transjordan, had agreed with the Israelis to divide up the Arab Palestinian state proposed by the UN General Assembly, while Egypt intervened primarily to prevent its rival in Amman from accomplishing its objective.[7] This was followed by the creation of a mutual defense treaty two years later. A common market was established in 1965.[5] (Robert W. MacDonald, The League of Arab States: A Study in Regional Organization. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1965.)

  Geography

  Administrative divisions in the Arab League

The area of members of the Arab League covers around 13,000,000 km2 (5,000,000 sq mi) and straddles two continents: Africa, and Asia. The area consists of large arid deserts, namely the Sahara. Nevertheless, it also contains several very fertile lands, such as the Nile Valley, the High Atlas Mountains, and the Fertile Crescent which stretches from Iraq over Syria, and Lebanon, Jordan and Palestine. The area comprises deep forests in southern Arabia, as well as parts of the world's longest river, the Nile.

The area witnessed the rise of many ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Israel and Judah, Assyria, Babylon, Phoenicia, Carthage, Kush, Ancient Somalia and the Nabateans, among others.

  Member states

  Joining dates of member states; the Comoros (circled) joined in 1993.
     1940s      1950s      1960s      1970s

The Arab League was founded in Cairo in 1945 by seven countries, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Transjordan (Jordan from 1946), and Yemen. There was a continual increase in membership during the second half of the 20th century, with additional 15 Arab states being admitted, with a current total of 21 member states due to Syria's suspension following the 2011 uprising.

On 22 February 2011, following the start of the 2011 Libyan civil war and the use of military force against civilians, the Arab League Secretary General, Amr Moussa, stated that Libya's membership in the Arab League had been suspended: "the organisation has decided to halt the participation of the Libyan delegations from all Arab League sessions".[8] This makes Libya the second country in the League's history to have a frozen membership. Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi declared that the League was illegitimate, saying, "The Arab League is finished. There is no such thing as the Arab League".[9][10] On 25 August 2011, Secretary General Nabil Elaraby announced it was "about time" Libya's full member status was restored. The National Transitional Council, the partially recognised interim government of Libya, will send a representative to be seated at the Arab League meeting on 17 August to participate in a discussion as to whether to readmit Libya to the organisation.[11]

The Arab Parliament recommended the suspension of member states Syria and Yemen on 20 September 2011, over persistent reports of disproportionate violence against regime opponents and activists during the Arab Spring.[12] A vote on 12 November agreed to formally suspend Syria four days after the vote, giving Assad a last chance to avoid suspension. Syria, Lebanon, and Yemen voted against the motion, while Iraq abstained.[13] A wave of criticism rose as the Arab League sent in Dec 2011 a commission "monitoring" Syria's violence (massacres) on its own people who protested its tyranny. The commission was headed by Mohammad Ahmed Mustafa al-Dabi, who served as head of infamous Omar al-Bashir's military intelligence, while heinous war crimes including genocide were committed on his watch.[14][15][16] Syria remains suspended.

  Political policy and administration

  Headquarters of the Arab League in Cairo

The Charter of the Arab League[2] endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland while respecting the sovereignty of the individual member states. The internal regulations of the Council of the League[17] and the committees[18] were agreed in October 1951. Those of the Secretariat-General were agreed in May 1953.[19]

Since then, governance of the Arab League has been based on the duality of supra-national institutions and the sovereignty of the member states. Preservation of individual statehood derived its strengths from the natural preference of ruling elites to maintain their power and independence in decision making. Moreover, the fear of the richer that the poorer may share their wealth in the name of Arab nationalism, the feuds among Arab rulers, and the influence of external powers that might oppose Arab unity can be seen as obstacles towards a deeper integration of the league.

Mindful of their previous announcements in support of the Arabs of Palestine the framers of the Pact were determined to include them within the League from its inauguration.[20] This was done by means of an annex that declared:[2]

Even though Palestine was not able to control her own destiny, it was on the basis of the recognition of her independence that the Covenant of the League of Nations determined a system of government for her. Her existence and her independence among the nations can, therefore, no more be questioned de jure than the independence of any of the other Arab States. [...] Therefore, the States signatory to the Pact of the Arab League consider that in view of Palestine's special circumstances, the Council of the League should designate an Arab delegate from Palestine to participate in its work until this country enjoys actual independence

At the Cairo Summit of 1964, the Arab League initiated the creation of an organisation representing the Palestinian people. The first Palestinian National Council convened in East Jerusalem on 29 May 1964. The Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded during this meeting on 2 June 1964. Today, Palestine is a full member of the Arab League and is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.

At the Beirut Summit on 28 March 2002, the league adopted the Arab Peace Initiative,[21] a Saudi-inspired peace plan for the Arab–Israeli conflict. The initiative offered full normalisation of the relations with Israel. In exchange, Israel was required to withdraw from all occupied territories, including the Golan Heights, to recognise Palestinian independence in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital, as well as a "just solution" for the Palestinian refugees. The Peace Initiative was again endorsed at 2007 in the Riyadh Summit. In July 2007, the Arab League sent a mission, consisting of the Jordanian and Egyptian foreign ministers, to Israel to promote the initiative. Following Venezuela's move to expel Israeli diplomats amid the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict, Kuwaiti member of parliament Waleed al-Tabtabai proposed moving Arab League headquarters Caracas, Venezuela.[22] On 13 June 2010, Amr Mohammed Moussa, Secretary-General of the Arab League visited the Gaza Strip, the first by an official of the Arab League since the election of Hamas in 2007.

  Summits

  1. Egypt Cairo: 13–17 January 1964.
  2. Egypt Alexandria: 5–11 September 1964.
  3. Morocco Casablanca: 13–17 September 1965.
  4. Sudan Khartoum: 29 August 1967.
  5. Morocco Rabat: 21–23 December 1969.
  6. Egypt Cairo (first emergency summit): 21–27 September 1970
  7. Algeria Algiers: 26–28 November.1973.
  8. Morocco Rabat: 29 October 1974.
  9. Saudi Arabia Riyadh (2nd emergency summit): 17–28 October 1976.
  10. Egypt Cairo: 25–26 October 1976.
  11. Iraq Baghdad: 2–5 November.1978.
  12. Tunisia Tunis: 20–22 November 1979.
  13. Jordan Amman: 21–22 November 1980.
  14. Morocco Fes: 6–9 September 1982.
  15. Morocco Casablanca (3rd emergency summit): 7–9 September 1985
  16. Jordan Amman (4th emergency summit): 8–12 November 1987.
  17. Algeria Algiers (5th emergency summit): 7–9 June 1988.
  18. Morocco Casablanca (6th emergency summit): 23–26 June 1989.
  19. Iraq Baghdad (7th emergency summit): 28–30 March 1990.
  20. Egypt Cairo (8th emergency summit): 9–10 August 1990
  21. Egypt Cairo (9th emergency summit): 22–23 June 1996.
  22. Egypt Cairo (10th emergency summit): 21–22 October 2000.
  23. Jordan Amman: 27–28 March 2001.
  24. Lebanon Beirut: 27–28 March 2002.
  25. Egypt Sharm el-Sheikh: 1 March 2003.
  26. Tunisia Tunis: 22–23 May 2004.
  27. Algeria Algiers: 22–23 March 2005.
  28. Sudan Khartoum: 28–30 March 2006.
  29. Saudi Arabia Riyadh: 27–28 March 2007.
  30. Syria Damascus: 29–30 March 2008.
  31. Qatar Doha: 28–30 March 2009.
  32. Libya Sirte: 27–28 March 2010.
  33. Iraq Baghdad: 27-29 March 2012.
  34. Qatar Doha: March 2013.
  • Two summits are not added to the system of Arab League summits:
    • Anshas, Egypt: 28–29 May 1946
    • Beirut, Lebanon: 13 – 15 November 1958
  • Summit 14 in Fes, Morocco, occurred in two stages:
    • On 25 November 1981: The 5-hours meeting ended without an agreed on document.
    • On 6–9 September 1982

  Economic resources

The Arab League is rich in resources, with enormous oil and natural gas resources in certain member states; it also has great fertile lands in southern Sudan, usually referred to as the food basket of the Arab World. Another industry that is growing steadily in the Arab League is telecommunications. Within less than a decade, local companies such as Orascom, and Etisalat have managed to compete internationally.

Economic achievements initiated by the League amongst member states have been less impressive than those achieved by smaller Arab organisations such as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).[23] Among them is the Arab Gas Pipeline, that will transport Egyptian and Iraqi gas to Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey. Significant difference in wealth and economic conditions exist between the rich oil states of the UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, and Algeria, and poor countries like the Comoros, Mauritania, and Djibouti. The Arab League agreed to support the Sudanese region of Darfur with US$500 million.

  Literacy in Arab league countries

In collecting literacy data, many countries estimate the number of literate people based on self-reported data. Some use educational attainment data as a proxy, but measures of school attendance or grade completion may differ. Because definitions and data collection methods vary across countries, literacy estimates should be used with caution. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2010.

Rank Country Literacy rate
1  Kuwait 98.6[24]
2  Lebanon 94.5[25]
3  Palestinian Authority 94.1[24]
4  Qatar 93.1[26]
5  Jordan 92.2[25]
6  Bahrain 90.8[26]
7  United Arab Emirates 90.0[26]
8  Libya 88.4[25]
9  Oman 86.7[24]
10  Saudi Arabia 85.5[25]
11  Syria 83.6[27]
12  Tunisia 78[25]
13  Iraq 77.6[24]
14  Comoros 73.6[27]
15  Algeria 72.6[25]
16  Morocco 70[27]
17  Sudan 69.3[24]
18  Djibouti 67.9[28]
19  Egypt 66.4[27]
20  Yemen 60.9[27]
21  Mauritania 56.8[27]
22  Somalia 54.8[27]

  Demographics of Arab League countries

The Arab League is a culturally and ethnically diverse association of 22 member states, although the overwhelming majority of the League's population identifies as Arab (either on a cultural basis, or on an ethno-racial basis). As of 1 January 2007, about 340,000,000 people live in the states of the Arab League. Its population grows faster than in most other global regions. The most populous member state is Egypt, with a population of about 81 million.[29] The least populated is the Comoros, with over 0.6 million inhabitants.

Rank Country Population Density (/km2) Density (sq mi) Notes
1  Egypt 81,650,212 90 233 [30]
2  Algeria 37,100,000 16 41 [31]
3  Morocco 36,064,173 75 194 [32]
4  Sudan 30,894,000 16 41 [33]
5  Iraq 30,747,000 70 181 [31]
6  Saudi Arabia 28,146,658 12 31 [31]
7  Yemen 23,580,000 45 117 [31]
8  Syria 21,906,000 118 306 [31]
9  Tunisia 10,673,800 65 168 [34]
10  Libya 6,733,620 3.8 9.8 [31] [35]
11  Somalia 9,133,000 14 36 [31]
12  United Arab Emirates 8,264,070 99 256 [36]
13  Jordan 6,316,000 71 184 [31]
14  Lebanon 4,224,000 404 1,046 [31]
15  Palestinian Authority 4,136,540 687 1,779 [37]
16  Kuwait 3,566,437 200 518 [31]
17  Mauritania 3,291,000 3.2 8.3 [31]
18  Oman 2,845,000 9.2 24 [31]
19  Qatar 1,699,435 154 399 [31]
20  Bahrain 1,234,596 1,646 4,263 [38]
21  Djibouti 864,000 37 96 [31]
22  Comoros 691,000 309 800 [31]
Total  Arab League 349,870,608 26.6 68.1
Religions
Islam
  
90%
Christianity
  
6%
Other
  
4%

The vast majority of the Arab League's citizens are Muslim, with Christianity being the second largest religion. Over 20 million Christians live in Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, the Palestinian Authority, Sudan and Syria.

Arab League population by sect following
N Country Islam Christians Others
1  Algeria 99% 0.5% 0.5%
2  Bahrain 81.2% 9% 8.81%
3  Comoros 99% 1% n/a
4  Djibouti 94% 5% 1%
5  Egypt 83% 16% 1%
6  Iraq 95% 4.3% 0.7%
7  Jordan 93% 6% 1%
8  Kuwait 85% 10% 5%
9  Lebanon 63% 34% 3%
10  Libya 88% 5% 7%
11  Mauritania 100% 0% 0%
12  Morocco 98.7% 1% 0.3%
13  Oman 92.5% 5% 2.5%
14  Palestinian Authority 92% 8% -
15  Qatar 77.6% 11% 11.4%
16  Saudi Arabia 100% 0% 0%
17  Somalia 100% 0% 0%
18  Sudan 97% 3% 0.001%
19  Syria 82% 12% 6%
20  Tunisia 98% 1% 1%
21  United Arab Emirates 76% 9% 15%
22  Yemen 99% 0.2% 0.8%
   Arab League 90% 6% 4%

  Jurisdiction

Rank Country Area (km2)[Note 1] Area (sq mi) % of Total Notes
1  Algeria 2,381,741 919,595 18.1% Largest country in Africa and in the Arab League.
2  Saudi Arabia 2,149,690 830,000 16.4% Largest country in the Middle East.
3  Sudan 1,886,068 728,215 14.2% Formerly the largest country in Africa.
4  Libya 1,759,540 679,360 11.4%
5  Mauritania 1,030,700 398,000 7.8%
6  Egypt 1,022,600 394,800 7.6% Excluding the Hala'ib Triangle (20,580 km2/7,950 sq mi).
7  Somalia 637,657 246,201 4.9% Excluding the Northern Frontier District, the Ogaden and Djbouti (306,154 km2/190,235 sq mi)
8  Yemen 527,968 203,850 4.0%
9  Morocco 446,550 172,410 3.4% Does not include Western Sahara (266,000 km2/103,000 sq mi).
10  Iraq 435,244 168,049 3.3%
11  Oman 309,500 119,500 2.4%
12  Syria 185,180 71,500 1.4% Including the part of the Golan Heights (1,200 km2/460 sq mi) currently administered by Israel.
13  Tunisia 163,610 63,170 1.2%
14  Jordan 89,342 34,495 0.7%
15  United Arab Emirates 83,600 32,300 0.6%
16  Djibouti 23,200 9,000 0.1%
17  Kuwait 17,818 6,880 0.1%
18  Qatar 11,586 4,473 0.08%
19  Lebanon 10,452 4,036 0.08%
20  Palestine 6,020 2,320 0.05%
21  Comoros 2,235 863 0.01%
22  Bahrain 758 293 0.005%

  See also

  Notes

  1. ^ Source, unless otherwise specified: (pdf) Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density. United Nations Statistics Division. 2008. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2008/Table03.pdf. Retrieved 24 September 2010. 
    Entries in this table giving figures other than the figures given in this source are bracketed by asterisks () in the Notes field, and the rationale for the figure used are explained in the associated Note.

  References

  1. ^ MENAFN (28 December 2009). "Qatar, UAE, wealthiest Arab states". http://www.menafn.com/qn_news_story_s.asp?storyid=1093292067. Retrieved 26 July 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c "Pact of the League of Arab States, 22 March 1945". The Avalon Project. Yale Law School. 1998. Archived from the original on 25 July 2008. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/arableag.htm. Retrieved 9 July 2008. 
  3. ^ "The Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALESCO)". http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-URL_ID=36214&URL_DO=DO_PRINTPAGE&URL_SECTION=201.html. 
  4. ^ Ashish K. Vaidya, Globalization, (ABC-CLIO: 2006), p.525
  5. ^ a b http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/arab-league-formed
  6. ^ http://history.howstuffworks.com/asian-history/arab-league.htm
  7. ^ Avi Shlaim, Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement, and the Partition of Palestine.Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press, 1988; Uri Bar-Joseph, Uri, The Best of Enemies: Israel and Transjordan in the War of 1948. London: Frank Cass, 1987; Joseph Nevo , King Abdullah and Palestine: A Territorial Ambition (London: Macmillan Press; New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
  8. ^ [1]
  9. ^ Souhail Karam - Tom Heneghan - Michael Roddy (16 March 2011). "Gaddafi taunts critics, dares them to get him". Reuters Africa. http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFLDE72E2RO20110316. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  10. ^ Kat Higgins (16 March 2011). "Libya: Clashes Continue As World Powers Stall". Sky News. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/World-News/VIDEO-Libyan-Army-Pushes-Towards-Benghazi-As-World-Powers-Debate-No-Fly-Zone-Against-Gaddafi/Article/201103315953124?lpos=World_News_First_World_News_Article_Teaser_Region_3&lid=ARTICLE_15953124_VIDEO%3A_Libyan_Army_Pushes_Towards_Benghazi_As_World_Powers_Debate_No_Fly_Zone_Against_Gaddafi. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  11. ^ "Arab League Recognizes Libyan Rebel Council". RTT News. 25 August 2011. http://www.rttnews.com/Content/GeneralNews.aspx?Id=1700187&SM=1. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  12. ^ "Arab League parliament urges Syria suspension". Al Jazeera English. 20 September 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/09/201192017594330402.html. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 
  13. ^ "Arab League Votes to Suspend Syria Over Crackdown". NYTimes.com. 12 November 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/13/world/middleeast/arab-league-votes-to-suspend-syria-over-its-crackdown-on-protesters.html. Retrieved 12 November 2011. 
  14. ^ D. Kenner, "The World's Worst Human Rights Observer." Foreign Policy, December 27, 2011. As Arab League monitors work to expose President Bashar al-Assad's crackdown, the head of the mission is a Sudanese general accused of creating the fearsome "janjaweed," which was responsible for the worst atrocities during the Darfur genocide. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/12/27/the_worlds_worst_human_rights_observer
  15. ^ "Syrian activists slam Arab League mission head," CNN, December 28, 2011, http://articles.cnn.com/2011-12-28/middleeast/world_meast_syria-opposition-al-dabi_1_ali-kushayb-local-coordinating-committees-syrian-opposition?_s=PM:MIDDLEEAST
  16. ^ "Violence in second Syrian city ahead of Arab League monitors' visit," The Guardian, December 28, 2011,http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/dec/28/syria-egypt
  17. ^ "Internal Regulations of the Council of the League of Arab States". Model League of Arab States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080406061423/http://faculty.winthrop.edu/haynese/mlas/CouncilRegs.html. Retrieved 9 July 2008. 
  18. ^ "Internal Regulations of the Committees of the League of Arab States". Model League of Arab States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080406075743/http://faculty.winthrop.edu/haynese/mlas/CmteeRegs.html. Retrieved 9 July 2008. 
  19. ^ "Internal Regulations of the Secretariat-General of the League". Model League of Arab States. Ed Haynes, Winthrop University. 6 April 1998. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080406064006/http://faculty.winthrop.edu/haynese/mlas/SecGenRegs.html. Retrieved 9 July 2008. 
  20. ^ Geddes, 1991, p. 208.
  21. ^ "The Arab Peace Initiative, 2002". al-bab.com. 1 October 2005. http://www.al-bab.com/arab/docs/league/peace02.htm. Retrieved 9 July 2008. 
  22. ^ "Kuwaiti MP calls to move Arab league to Venezuela". AFP, via CaribbeanNetNews. 15 January 2009. http://www.caribbeannetnews.com/news-13536--12-12--.html. Retrieved 16 January 2009. 
  23. ^ Reuters.com
  24. ^ a b c d e p. 195
  25. ^ a b c d e f p. 193
  26. ^ a b c p. 192
  27. ^ a b c d e f g p. 194
  28. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/dj.html
  29. ^ "Central Agency for Public Mobilization And Statistics". http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/pls/fdl/tst12e?action=1&lname=. 
  30. ^ http://www.msrintranet.capmas.gov.eg/pls/fdl/tst12e?action=1&lname=%201 Official Egyptian Population clock
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o (PDF) World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. 2009. p. 17. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  32. ^ http://www.hcp.ma Official Moroccan Population clock
  33. ^ http://www.cbs.gov.sd 2008 Sudanese census
  34. ^ http://www.ins.nat.tn/indexen.php National Statistics Institute of Tunisia
  35. ^ CIA World Factbook. July 2012 population estimate for Libya. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ly.html
  36. ^ "المركز الوطني للإحصاء: المواطنون 947.9 ألفاً - جريدة الاتحاد". Alittihad.ae. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. http://www.alittihad.ae/details.php?id=31500&y=2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011. 
  37. ^ PALESTINIAN TERRITORIES GAZA STRIP AND WEST BANK
  38. ^ http://www.census2010.gov.bh/results_en.php

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