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alemán árabe búlgaro checo chino coreano croata danés eslovaco esloveno español estonio farsi finlandés francés griego hebreo hindù húngaro indonesio inglés islandés italiano japonés letón lituano malgache neerlandés noruego polaco portugués rumano ruso serbio sueco tailandès turco vietnamita

definición - Bomb

bomb (n.)

1.an explosive device fused to explode under specific conditions

2.strong sealed vessel for measuring heat of combustion

3.an event that fails badly or is totally ineffectual"the first experiment was a real turkey" "the meeting was a dud as far as new business was concerned"

bomb (v.)

1.throw bombs at or attack with bombs"The Americans bombed Dresden"

2.fail to get a passing grade"She studied hard but failed nevertheless" "Did I fail the test?"

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Merriam Webster

BombBomb (�), n. [F. bombe bombshell, fr. L. bombus a humming or buzzing noise, Gr. .]


1. A great noise; a hollow sound. [Obs.]

A pillar of iron . . . which if you had struck, would make . . . a great bomb in the chamber beneath. Bacon.

2. (Mil.) A shell; esp. a spherical shell, like those fired from mortars. See Shell.

3. A bomb ketch.

Bomb chest (Mil.), a chest filled with bombs, or only with gunpowder, placed under ground, to cause destruction by its explosion. -- Bomb ketch, Bomb vessel (Naut.), a small ketch or vessel, very strongly built, on which mortars are mounted to be used in naval bombardments; -- called also mortar vessel. -- Bomb lance, a lance or harpoon with an explosive head, used in whale fishing. -- Volcanic bomb, a mass of lava of a spherical or pear shape. “I noticed volcanic bombs.” Darwin.

BombBomb, v. t. To bombard. [Obs.] Prior.

BombBomb, v. i. [Cf. Boom.] To sound; to boom; to make a humming or buzzing sound. [Obs.] B. Jonson.

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definición (más)

definición de Bomb (Wikipedia)

sinónimos - Bomb

bomb (v.)

be wide, bombard, breakdown, flush it, go wide, miss, not hit, shell, unstuck, break down  (figurative), come to grief  (figurative), fail  (figurative), flunk  (colloquial, figurative, American), founder  (figurative), miscarry  (figurative)

ver también - Bomb

bomb (n.)

bombard, pellet, pelt, pepper

bomb (v.)

get through, make it, pass, qualify

frases

-1943 Naples post office bomb • 2001 shoe bomb plot • 2007 Boston bomb scare • 23d Bomb Squadron • 28th Bomb Wing • 2d Bomb Wing • 509th Bomb Wing • 5th Bomb Wing • 7th Bomb Wing • Adam Bomb (musician) • After The Bomb • After the Bomb • Alipore bomb case • Atom Bomb • Atom Bomb (song) • Atom Bomb Blues • Atom bomb • B46 nuclear bomb • B90 nuclear bomb • BOMB (magazine) • Baka bomb • Bat (guided bomb) • Bath bomb • Bio-bomb • Blast bomb • Bomb (Young Ones episode) • Bomb (band) • Bomb (disambiguation) • Bomb (slang) • Bomb Bee • Bomb Factory • Bomb Jack • Bomb Jack 1 • Bomb Jack Twin • Bomb Queen • Bomb Ship • Bomb Song • Bomb Squad EP • Bomb bay • Bomb damage assessment • Bomb disposal • Bomb holes • Bomb ketch • Bomb scare • Bomb the Bass • Bomb the Music Industry! • Bomb the Suburbs • Bomb the System • Bomb the Twist • Bomb threat • Bomb vessel • Bombay bomb blasts • Bouncing bomb • Box Office Bomb (album) • Box office bomb • Bunker buster bomb • Caffeine Bomb • Calm Like a Bomb • Car bomb • Car-bomb • Chlorine bomb • Cluster bomb • Cobalt bomb • Cookie (bomb) • Cryptologic bomb • Da Bomb Bikes • Delay-action bomb • Depleted uranium bomb • Dinky Bomb • Dirty bomb • Dr. Bloodmoney, or How We Got Along After the Bomb • Dr. Bomb • Dry ice bomb • E-mail bomb • Earth quake bomb • Elitzur–Vaidman bomb-tester • Ethno-bomb • F-Bomb • Fag bomb • Flour bomb • Flying bomb • Fork bomb • GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb • Gama Bomb • Glide bomb • Google Bomb • Google bomb • Gun-type nuclear bomb • H Bomb • Hey There Bomb • Hiroden Atomic Bomb Dome Station • Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims • Hitler's Bomb • Homosexual bomb • Hot Wheels Beach Bomb • Hudson River bomb plot • Irish Car Bomb • Japanese balloon bomb • Jennie Bomb • Jesus Hits Like the Atom Bomb • Johnny and the Bomb • Jumping Bomb Angels • Laser-guided bomb • Letter bomb • Lewes bomb • Link bomb • Liquid bomb • List of USAF Bomb Wings and Wings assigned to Strategic Air Command • Long bomb (ice hockey) • Love Bomb • Love Bomb Baby • Love bomb • Mark 10 nuclear bomb • Mark 11 nuclear bomb • Mark 12 nuclear bomb • Mark 14 nuclear bomb • Mark 15 nuclear bomb • Mark 16 nuclear bomb • Mark 18 nuclear bomb • Mark 24 nuclear bomb • Mark 27 nuclear bomb • Mark 4 nuclear bomb • Mark 5 nuclear bomb • Mark 6 nuclear bomb • Mark 7 nuclear bomb • Mark 8 nuclear bomb • Mark 82 bomb • Mark 83 bomb • Mark 84 bomb • Mark 90 Betty nuclear bomb • Mika Bomb • Mills bomb • Mind Bomb • Mk-101 Lulu NDB (Nuclear Depth Bomb) • Monster bomb • Mumbai bomb blast • Mumbai bomb blasts • Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum • Nail bomb • Neutron bomb • New York City landmark bomb plot • Norden bomb sight • Nova bomb (Andromeda) • November 14 2005 Brisbane bomb hoax • Nuclear Bomb • Nuclear depth bomb • Operation Logic Bomb • Pension bomb • Pipe bomb • Plastic bomb • Population time bomb • Proxy bomb • Pumpkin bomb • Sake Bomb (song) • Sex Bomb • Small Diameter Bomb • Smart Bomb (video game) • Smart Bomb Interactive • Smart bomb (disambiguation) • Sofar bomb • Soft Bomb • Soviet atomic bomb • Soviet atomic bomb program • Soviet hydrogen bomb project • Steak bomb • Stick bomb • Stumble Bomb '03 • Suicide bomb attack • Talbot Street bomb-making haul • Talk to La Bomb • Tennessee Slim Is the Bomb • The Black Bossalini (a.k.a. Dr. Bomb from da Bay) • The Bomb • The Bomb Bassets • The Bomb Squad • The Bomb! (These Sounds Fall into My Mind) • The Bomb-itty of Errors • The Human Bomb • The Last Bomb • The Making of the Atomic Bomb • The Nude Bomb • The Population Bomb • The Rhyme of the Flying Bomb • Thermo-nuclear bomb • Thin Man nuclear bomb • Ticking time bomb scenario • Time Bomb (Angel episode) • Time Bomb (Buckcherry album) • Time Bomb (Demolition Hammer album) • Time Bomb (Rancid song) • Time Bomb Recordings • Time bomb (disambiguation) • Time bomb (software) • Tsar bomb • Unguided bomb • V-1 flying bomb • Warrington bomb attacks • You Dropped a Bomb on Me • Zip bomb

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bomb (n.)




Wikipedia

Bomb

                   
  The Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb produced in the United States is the second most powerful conventional bomb in the world.

A bomb is any of a range (short or long distance) of explosive weapons that only rely on the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy (an explosive device). Detonations inflict damage principally through ground- and atmosphere-transmitted mechanical stress, the impact and penetration of pressure-driven projectiles, pressure damage, and explosion-generated effects.[1] A nuclear weapon employs chemical-based explosives to initiate a much larger nuclear-based explosion.

The term bomb is not usually applied to explosive devices used for civilian- purposes such as construction or mining, although the people using the devices may sometimes refer to them as "bomb". The military use of the term "bomb", or more specifically aerial bomb action, typically refers to airdropped, unpowered explosive weapons most commonly used by air forces and naval aviation. Other military explosive weapons not classified as "bombs" include grenades, shells, depth charges (used in water), warheads when in missiles, or land mines. In unconventional warfare, "bomb" can refer to a range of offensive weaponry. For instance, in recent conflicts, "bombs" known as improvised explosive devices (IEDS) have been employed by insurgent fighters to great effectiveness.

The word comes from the Latin bombus, which in turn comes from the Greek βόμβος (bombos),[2] an onomatopoetic term meaning "booming".

Contents

  Shock

Explosive shock waves can cause situations such as body displacement (i.e., people being thrown through the air), dismemberment, internal bleeding and ruptured eardrums.[3]

Shock waves produced by explosive events have two distinct components, the positive and negative wave. The positive wave shoves outward from the point of detonation, followed by the trailing vacuum space "sucking back" towards the point of origin as the shock bubble collapses. The greatest defense against shock injuries is distance from the source of shock.[4] As a point of reference, the overpressure at the Oklahoma City bombing was estimated in the range of 4000 psi.[5]

  Heat

A thermal wave is created by the sudden release of heat caused by an explosion. Military bomb tests have documented temperatures of up to 2,480 °C (4,500 °F). While capable of inflicting severe to catastrophic burns and causing secondary fires, thermal wave effects are considered very limited in range compared to shock and fragmentation. This rule has been challenged, however, by military development of thermobaric weapons, which employ a combination of negative shock wave effects and extreme temperature to incinerate objects within the blast radius.


  Fragmentation

Fragmentation is produced by the acceleration of shattered pieces of bomb casing and adjacent physical objects. While conventionally viewed as small metal shards moving at super- to hypersonic speeds, fragmentation can occur in epic proportions and travel for extensive distances. When the S.S. Grandcamp exploded in the Texas City Disaster on April 16, 1947, one fragment of that blast was a two ton anchor which was hurled nearly two miles inland to embed itself in the parking lot of the Pan American refinery. Fragmentation should not be confused with shrapnel, which relies on the momentum of a shell to cause damage.

  Effects on living things

To people who are close to a blast incident, such as bomb disposal technicians, soldiers wearing body armor, deminers or individuals wearing little to no protection, there are four types of blast effects on the human body: overpressure (shock), fragmentation, impact and heat. Overpressure refers to the sudden and drastic rise in ambient pressure that can damage the internal organs, possibly leading to permanent damage or death. Fragmentation includes the shrapnel described above but can also include sand, debris and vegetation from the area surrounding the blast source. This is very common in anti-personnel mine blasts.[6] The projection of materials poses a potentially lethal threat caused by cuts in soft tissues, as well as infections, and injuries to the internal organs. When the overpressure wave impacts the body it can induce violent levels of blast-induced acceleration. Resulting injuries range from minor to unsurvivable. Immediately following this initial acceleration, deceleration injuries can occur when a person impacts directly against a rigid surface or obstacle after being set in motion by the force of the blast. Finally, injury and fatality can result from the explosive fireball as well as incendiary agents projected onto the body. Personal protective equipment, such as a bomb suit or demining ensemble, as well as helmets, visors and foot protection, can dramatically reduce the four effects, depending upon the charge, proximity and other variables.

  Effects on structures

  Types

  Diagram of a simple time bomb in the form of a pipe bomb
  An American B61 nuclear bomb on its loading carriage

Experts commonly distinguish between civilian and military bombs. The latter are almost always mass-produced weapons, developed and constructed to a standard design out of standard components and intended to be deployed in a standard explosive device. IEDs are divided into three basic categories by basic size and delivery. Type 76, IEDs are hand-carried parcel or suitcase bombs, type 80, are "suicide vests" worn by a bomber, and type 3 devices are vehicles laden with explosives to act as large-scale stationary or self-propelled bombs, also known as VBIED (vehicle-borne IEDs).

Improvised explosive materials are typically very unstable and subject to spontaneous, unintentional detonation triggered by a wide range of environmental effects ranging from impact and friction to electrostatic shock. Even subtle motion, change in temperature, or the nearby use of cellphones or radios, can trigger an unstable or remote-controlled device. Any interaction with explosive materials or devices by unqualified personnel should be considered a grave and immediate risk of death or dire injury. The safest response to finding an object believed to be an explosive device is to get as far away from it as possible.

Atomic bombs are based on the theory of nuclear fission, that when a large atom splits it releases a massive amount of energy. Hydrogen bombs use the energy from an initial fission explosion to create an even more powerful fusion explosion.

The term dirty bomb refers to a specialized device that relies on a comparatively low explosive yield to scatter harmful material over a wide area. Most commonly associated with radiological or chemical materials, dirty bombs seek to kill or injure and then to deny access to a contaminated area until a thorough clean-up can be accomplished. In the case of urban settings, this clean-up may take extensive time, rendering the contaminated zone virtually uninhabitable in the interim.

The power of large bombs is typically measured in kilotons (Kt) or megatons of TNT (Mt). The most powerful bombs ever used in combat were the two atomic bombs dropped by the United States to attack Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the most powerful ever tested was the Tsar Bomba. The most powerful non-nuclear bomb is Russian "Father of All Bombs" (officially Aviation Thermobaric Bomb of Increased Power (ATBIP))[7] followed by the United States Air Force's MOAB (officially Massive Ordnance Air Blast, or more commonly known as the "Mother of All Bombs").

Below is a list of five different types of bombs based on the fundamental explosive mechanism they employ.

  Compressed Gas

Relatively small explosions can be produced by pressurizing a container until catastrophic failure such as with a dry ice bomb. Technically, devices that create explosions of this type can not be classified as "bombs" by the definition presented at the top of this article. However, the explosions created by these devices can cause property damage, injury, or death. Flammable liquids, gasses and gas mixtures dispersed in these explosions may also ignite if exposed to a spark or flame.

  Low Explosive

The simplest and oldest type of bombs store energy in the form of a low explosive. Black powder is an example of a low explosive. Low explosives typically consist of a composition of an oxidizing salt, such as potassium nitrate, and solid fuel, such as charcoal or aluminum powder. These compositions deflagrate upon ignition producing hot gas. Under normal circumstances deflagration occurs too slowly to produce a significant pressure wave. Low explosives must, therefore, be used in large quantities or confined in a container with a high burst pressure to be used as an effective bomb.

  High Explosive

A high explosive bomb is one that employs a process called "detonation" to rapidly release its chemical energy. Detonation is distinct from deflagration in that the chemical reaction propagates faster than the speed of sound (often many times faster) in an intense shock wave. Therefore, the pressure wave produced by a high explosive is not significantly increased by confinement as detonation occurs so quickly that the resulting plasma does not expand much before all the explosive material has reacted. This has led to the development of plastic explosive. A casing is still employed in some high explosive bombs, but with the purpose of fragmentation. Most high explosive bombs consist of an insensitive secondary explosive that must be detonated with a blasting cap containing a more sensitive primary explosive.

  Nuclear Fission

Nuclear fission type atomic bombs utilize the energy present in very heavy atomic nuclei, such as U-235 or Pu-239. In order to release this energy rapidly, a certain amount of the fissile material must be very rapidly consolidated while being exposed to a neutron source. If consolidation occurs slowly, repulsive forces drive the material apart before a significant explosion can occur. Under the right circumstances, rapid consolidation can provoke a chain reaction that can proliferate and intensify by many orders of magnitude within microseconds. The energy released by a nuclear fission bomb may be tens of thousands of times greater than a chemical bomb of the same mass.

  Nuclear Fusion

Nuclear fusion type atomic bombs release energy through the fusion of the light atomic nuclei of deuterium and tritium. With this type of bomb, a thermonuclear detonation is triggered by the detonation of a fission type nuclear bomb contained within a material containing high concentrations of deuterium and tritium. Weapon yield is typically increased with a tamper that increases the duration and intensity of the reaction through inertial confinement and neutron reflection. Nuclear fusion bombs can have arbitrarily high yields making them hundreds or thousands of times more powerful than nuclear fission bombs.

  Delivery

  A B-2 Spirit drops forty-seven 500 lb (230 kg) class Mark 82 bombs (little more than half a B-2's total ordnance payload) in a 1994 live fire exercise in California
  An F-15E Strike Eagle releasing 1 5,000 lb (2,300 kg) GBU-28 "Bunker Buster" during a test

The first air-dropped bombs were used by the Austrians in the 1849 siege of Venice. Two hundred unmanned balloons carried small bombs although few bombs actually hit the city.[8]

The first bombing from a fixed-wing aircraft took place in 1911 when the Italians bombed the Turkish lines in what is now Libya, during the Italo-Turkish War. The bombs were dropped by hand.[9]

The first large scale dropping of bombs took place during World War I starting in 1915 with the German Zeppelin Airship raids on London, England. One raid on the 8th of September 1915 dropped 4,000 lb (1,800 kg) of high explosives and incendiary bombs, including one bomb which weighed 600 lb (270 kg).[10]

The first significant bombing in the United States took place nine years later at noon on September 16, 1920 when an explosives-laden horse-drawn wagon detonated on the lunchtime-crowded streets of New York's financial district. The Wall Street bombing employed many aspects of modern VNSA devices, such as cast-iron slugs added for shrapnel, in an attack that killed 38 and injured some 400 others.

Modern military bomber aircraft are designed around a large-capacity internal bomb bay while fighter bombers usually carry bombs externally on pylons or bomb racks, or on multiple ejection racks which enable mounting several bombs on a single pylon. Modern bombs, precision-guided munitions, may be guided after they leave an aircraft by remote control, or by autonomous guidance. When bombs such as nuclear weapons are mounted on a powered platform, they are called guided missiles.

Some bombs are equipped with a parachute, such as the World War II "parafrag", which was an 11 kg fragmentation bomb, the Vietnam-era daisy cutters, and the bomblets of some modern cluster bombs. Parachutes slow the bomb's descent, giving the dropping aircraft time to get to a safe distance from the explosion. This is especially important with airburst nuclear weapons, and in situations where the aircraft releases a bomb at low altitude.[11]

A hand grenade is delivered by being thrown. Grenades can also be projected by other means, such as being launched from the muzzle of a rifle, as in the rifle grenade or using the M203 grenade launcher or by attaching a rocket to the explosive grenade as in a rocket-propelled grenade (RPG).

A bomb may also be positioned in advance and concealed.

A bomb destroying a rail track just before a train arrives causes a train to derail. Apart from the damage to vehicles and people, a bomb exploding in a transport network often also damages, and is sometimes mainly intended to damage that network. This applies for railways, bridges, runways, and ports, and to a lesser extent, depending on circumstances, to roads.

In the case of suicide bombing the bomb is often carried by the attacker on his or her body, or in a vehicle driven to the target.

The Blue Peacock nuclear mines, which were also termed "bombs", were planned to be positioned during wartime and be constructed such that, if they were disturbed, they would explode within ten seconds.

The explosion of a bomb may be triggered by a detonator or a fuse. Detonators are triggered by clocks, remote controls like cell phones or some kind of sensor, such as pressure (altitude), radar, vibration or contact. Detonators vary in ways they work, they can be electrical, fire fuze or blast initiated detonators and others,

  Blast seat

In forensic science, the point of detonation of a bomb is referred to as its blast seat, seat of explosion, blast hole or epicenter. Depending on the type, quantity and placement of explosives, the blast seat may be either diffuse or concentrated (i.e., an explosion crater).[12]

Other types of explosions, such as dust or vapor explosions, do not cause craters or even have definitive blast seats.[12]

  References

  1. ^ Milstein, Randall L. (2008). "Bomb damage assessment". In Ayn Embar-seddon, Allan D. Pass (eds.). Forensic Science. Salem Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-58765-423-7. 
  2. ^ βόμβος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  3. ^ Mlstein, Randall L. (2008). "Bomb damage assessment". In Ayn Embar-seddon, Allan D. Pass (eds.). Forensic Science. Salem Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-1-58765-423-7. 
  4. ^ Marks, Michael E. (2002). The Emergency Responder's Guide to Terrorism. Red Hat Publishing Co., Inc.. p. 30. ISBN 1-932235-00-0. 
  5. ^ Wong, Henry (2002). "Blast-Resistant Building Design Technology Analysis of its Application to Modern Hotel Design". WGA Wong Gregerson Architects, Inc.. pp. 5. 
  6. ^ Coupland, R.M. (1989). Amputation for antipersonnel mine injuries of the leg: preservation of the tibial stump using a medial gastrocnemius myoplasty. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 71, pp. 405–408.
  7. ^ Solovyov, Dmitry (2007-09-12). "Russia tests superstrength bomb, military says". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSL1155952320070912?feedType=RSS&feedName=worldNews&rpc=22&sp=true. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  8. ^ Murphy, Justin; contributed by Tucker, Spencer (2005). Military Aircraft, Origins to 1918: An Illustrated History of their Impact. ABC-CLIO. p. 10. ISBN 1-85109-488-1. http://books.google.com/?id=7pS1QpH8FRgC&pg=PA10&dq=Venice+bombing+1849. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  9. ^ Lindqvist, Sven (2004). "Guernica". Shock and Awe: War on Words. published by Van Eekelen, Bregje. North Atlantic Books. p. 76. ISBN 0-9712546-0-5. http://books.google.com/?id=R-I3Zsdm14wC&pg=PA76&dq=Lindqvist+Bombing+Libya. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  10. ^ Wilbur Cross, "Zeppelins of World War I" page 35, published 1991 Paragon House ISBN I-56619-390-7
  11. ^ Jackson, S.B. (June 1968). The Retardation of Weapons for Low Altitude Bombing. United States Naval Institute Proceedings. 
  12. ^ a b Walsh, C. J. (2008). "Blast seat". In Ayn Embar-seddon, Allan D. Pass (eds.). Forensic Science. Salem Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-58765-423-7. 

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