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definición - Don Black (white nationalist)

definición de Don Black (white nationalist) (Wikipedia)

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Wikipedia

Don Black (white nationalist)

                   
Born Stephen Donald Black
(1953-07-28) July 28, 1953 (age 58)
Athens, Alabama
Nationality American
Alma mater University of Alabama[1]
Known for Stormfront
Spouse Chloe Black[2]
Children Derek Black[3]
Website
Stormfront

Don Black (born Stephen Donald Black[4] on July 28, 1953) is an American white nationalist and white supremacist.[5][6] He is the founder, and current webmaster, of the Stormfront internet forum.[7] He was a Grand Wizard in the Ku Klux Klan and a member of the American Nazi Party in the 1970s.[8][9][10] He was convicted in 1981 for attempted armed overthrow of the Dominican government in violation of the U.S. Neutrality Act.[11][12] In 1997, he colluded with the UPS shipping business to racially harass a black woman in his neighbourhood.[13]

Contents

  Early life

Don Black was born in Athens, Alabama, and became an activist at an early age when he began passing out racially charged newspapers White Power and the Thunderbolt at his high school. This led to a decision by the local school board to ban the distribution of political literature. Black countered by mailing literature to student addresses obtained from school handbooks. He said in an interview that growing up in the South during the turmoil of the civil rights movement made him aware from a White political perspective.[14]

In the summer of 1970, after his junior year at Athens High School, Black traveled to Savannah, Georgia, to work on the gubernatorial campaign of J.B. Stoner, a segregationist and leader of the National States' Rights Party (NSRP). It was in this election that Jimmy Carter won the Georgia governorship. Don Black was asked to obtain a copy of the NSRP membership list by Robert Lloyd, a leader of the National Socialist White People's Party, formerly known as the American Nazi Party.[15] At the time, Black was a member of the Party's youth branch, the National Socialist Youth Movement.

Also working on the Stoner campaign was Jerry Ray, brother of Martin Luther King's assassin James Earl Ray. On July 25, 1970, Jerry Ray shot Black (who was 16 at the time) in the chest with a .38-caliber hollow-point bullet to stop him from taking files from Stoner's campaign office.[16] Ray was acquitted of all charges, saying he shot in self-defense after Black reached for what appeared to be a weapon.[17][18][19]

Black finished his senior year at Madison Academy (Alabama), a private school in Huntsville. Then after high school, Black graduated from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa in 1975.[1] He took Army ROTC classes and finished the basic program.[citation needed]

  The Ku Klux Klan and Operation Red Dog

Black joined the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan in 1975, one year after David Duke took over the organization. He moved to Birmingham to become the group's state organizer. After the resignation of Duke in 1978, Black became Grand Wizard, or national director, of the Klan. In 1979, he ran for mayor of Birmingham, receiving just 2.5 percent of the vote.[20] Frank Parsons won the mayoral election, becoming Birmingham's first black mayor.[21]

On April 27, 1981, Black and nine other would-be mercenaries – many recruited from Klan affiliated organizations – were arrested in New Orleans as they prepared to board a boat stocked with weapons and ammunition to invade the island nation Dominica in what they would call Operation Red Dog.[22] However, the local media would label the botched attempt the "Bayou of Pigs", a play on words for the unsuccessful 1961 "Bay of Pigs Invasion" of Cuba.

Black later explained the invasion as an attempt to set up an anti-communist regime, saying, "What we were doing was in the best interests of the United States and its security in the hemisphere, and we feel betrayed by our own government,"[23] The invasion was intended to restore former prime minister Patrick John to the mostly black Caribbean island. Prosecutors said the real purpose for the invasion would have been to set up tourism, gambling, offshore banking, and timber logging operations on the impoverished island.

In 1981, Black was sentenced to three years in prison for his role in the attempted invasion and his violation of the Neutrality Act.[24][25] Black, Federal Bureau of Prisons#16692-034, was released on November 15, 1984.[26] During his time in federal prison Black took computer programming classes which led him to establish Stormfront on the Internet years later.[23] In 1986 Black rethought his commitment to the KKK, resigning from the group in 1987.[citation needed]

He tried running for office in Alabama once again, this time as a Populist Party US Senate candidate.[27][28]

  From Stormfront to today

Black founded Stormfront in 1995. The website is seen as being the internet's first major hate site,[29] and remains one of the most popular.[30] Stormfront featured the writings of William Luther Pierce and David Duke, as well as works by the Institute for Historical Review. Initially, along with these articles, Stormfront housed a library of white pride, neo-Nazi and white power skinhead graphics for downloading, and a number of links to other white nationalist websites.

In a 1998 interview for the alternative weekly newspaper Miami New Times, Black is quoted as saying "We want to take America back. We know a multicultural Yugoslav nation can't hold up for too long. Whites won't have any choice but to take military action. It's our children whose interests we have to defend."[9] In December 2007, Black gained attention for donating money to Ron Paul's 2008 presidential run.[31]

Don Black feels that the establishment of white pride as a special interest group within the Republican Party is a crucial strategy.[32] Asked by an interviewer for Italian newspaper la Repubblica if Stormfront was not just the new Ku Klux Klan, Black responded affirmatively, though he noted that he would never say so to an American journalist.[32]

On May 5, 2009 it was announced that Black was one of the 22 on a British Home Office list of individuals banned from entering the United Kingdom[33] for "promoting serious criminal activity and fostering hatred that might lead to inter-community violence".[4][34]

  Family

In 2008, it was revealed Don Black's wife, Chloe, works as an executive assistant for Sugar baron Pepe Fanjul who runs the Florida Crystals company and owns a real estate business in Latin American countries.[2] In particular, her job duties included acting as the spokesperson for a charter school "to lift underprivileged black and Hispanic children out of poverty."[35] The story was successively reported by Gawker, the New York Post, the Palm Beach Post, and Fox News, and resulted in Black being criticized by some other white nationalists.[35][36][37][38][39] Chloe was previously married to David Duke.[2]

In August 2008 Black's 19-year-old son Derek was elected to one of 111 seats on the Palm Beach County, Fla., Republican committee, with 167 of 287 votes.[40][3] The committee has refused to seat Black, citing a loyalty oath he failed to sign before registering his candidacy. The oath states candidates must refrain from activities "likely to injure the name of the Republican Party."[3] He hosts the Derek Black Show on a local AM radio station.

  Further reading

  • Swain, Carol M.; Russ Nieli (2003-03-24). Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism in America. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81673-4. 

  References

  1. ^ a b "Don Black / Stormfront". Anti-Defamation League. 2012. http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/Don-Black/background.asp. Retrieved 2012-07-02. 
  2. ^ a b c "Billionaire won't fire assisant for KKK link". New York Post. October 8, 2010. http://www.nypost.com/p/pagesix/linked_to_kkk_keeps_her_job_PfFEwT29YLqtToLV5MIgiI. Retrieved 2010-07-02. 
  3. ^ a b c Cave, Damien (2008-12-12). "A Local Election's Results Raise Major Questions on Race". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/12/us/12florida.html. Retrieved 2010-05-01. 
  4. ^ a b "UK 'least wanted' list published", BBC News, 2009-05-05. Retrieved on 2009-05-06.
  5. ^ Swain, Carol Miller; Russ Nieli (2003). Contemporary Voices of White Nationalism in America. Cambridge University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-521-81673-1. 
  6. ^ Daniels, Jessie (2009). Cyber racism: white supremacy online and the new attack on civil rights. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-7425-6158-8. 
  7. ^ Sources which consider Stormfront a white supremacist website are:
  8. ^ Etchingham, Julie (January 12, 2000). "Hate.com expands on the net". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/600876.stm. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  9. ^ a b New Times Feb. 19-25, 1998 article "The Racist Next Door"
  10. ^ at the time he was a member it was known as the 'National Socialist White Peoples' Party' Bridges, Tyler The Rise of David Duke University Press of Mississippi (Sep 1995) ISBN 978-0-87805-684-2 p.40 [1]
  11. ^ Lloyd, Robin (August 12, 1999). "Web trackers hunt racist groups online". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/TECH/computing/9908/12/hate.online/. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  12. ^ McKelvey, Tara (August 16, 2001). "Father and son team on hate site". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/2001-07-16-kid-hate-sites.htm#more. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  13. ^ http://archives.savannahnow.com/sav_pdf_archive/text/fr803/A_2464396.pdf
  14. ^ White supremacist former KKK leader spreads views on net
  15. ^ H. Michael Barrett "The 1970 Split In The NSWPP: A First Hand Account"
  16. ^ "Hate Website Stormfront Sees Rapid Growth of Neo-Nazi Community". Intelligence Report. 2005. http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-report/browse-all-issues/2005/summer/electronic-storm. Retrieved 2012-07-02. 
  17. ^ "Man Acquitted Of Shooting Nazi," The Dispatch, Nov 25, 1970
  18. ^ "Jerry Ray Acquitted," The Times-News, Nov 25, 1970
  19. ^ "Earl Ray's Kin Acquitted On Assault Charge," ‎Press-Courier, Nov 27, 1970
  20. ^ "Parsons, Arrington In Runoff," Gadsden Times, Oct 11, 1979
  21. ^ "Birmingham Gets First Black Mayor," Eugene Register-Guard, Oct 31, 1979
  22. ^ Operation Red Dog is the subject of Stewart Bell, Bayou of Pigs: The True Story of an Audacious Plot to Turn a Tropical Island into a Criminal Paradise (John Wiley & Sons, 2008).
  23. ^ a b The Racist Next Door
  24. ^ "Conspirators Get Three Years," Star-News, 23 July 1981
  25. ^ "U.S. Prosectors Pushing Hunt for Backers of Dominica Coup," Record-Journal, 22 June 1981
  26. ^ "Stephen D Black." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on December 2, 2010.
  27. ^ "Fringe Party Offers Help to Candidate," Miami Herald - Aug 11, 1990
  28. ^ "Klansmen See Populist Party as Best Vechile, Candidate Says," South Florida Sun - Sentinel, 16 April 1990
  29. ^ Levin, Brian. "Cyberhate: A Legal and Historical Analysis of Extremists' Use of Computer Networks in America."Hate and Bias Crime: A Reader. Ed. Barbara Perry. Routledge, 2003. 363.
  30. ^ Cohen-Almagor, Raphael. The Scope of Tolerance: Studies on the costs of free expression and freedom of the press. Routledge, 2005. 254.
  31. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20080125015705/http://www.floridatoday.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20071219/BREAKINGNEWS/71219044
  32. ^ a b Mario Calabresi (2008-10-29). "Fermeremo Barack Obama siamo il nuovo Ku Klux Klan". la Repubblica. http://www.repubblica.it/2008/10/sezioni/esteri/verso-elezioni-usa-5/nuovo-kkk/nuovo-kkk.html. Retrieved 2008-11-17.  Quote from Black: "Non è più tempo per cercare di creare un terzo partito destinato alla marginalità, dobbiamo presentarci ad ogni elezione primaria dentro il partito repubblicano così da imporre i nostri temi nel dibattito, dobbiamo lavorare per creare un nostro gruppo di interesse, per restaurare le tradizioni e i veri valori bianchi". This translates as: "There is no more time to try to create a third party for the marginalized, we must enter every primary election within the Republican Party to impose our issues in the debate, we must work to create our special interest group, to restore tradition and true white values."
  33. ^ "Home Office name hate promoters excluded from the UK", Home Office Press Release, 5 May 2009
  34. ^ "Who is on UK 'least wanted' list?", BBC News, 2009-05-05. Retrieved on 2009-05-06.
  35. ^ a b "Woman With Ties to White Supremacists Represents School for Blacks and Hispanics". Fox News. 2008-07-30. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,394362,00.html. 
  36. ^ http://www.splcenter.org/blog/2008/07/28/stormfront-founder’s-wife-sets-off-firestorm/
  37. ^ Local organizer, other supremacists say Obama's run boosts their cause
  38. ^ Wtf: The Socialite's Nazi Publicist
  39. ^ "Sugar Baron Aide's Kkk Link". New York Post. 2008-07-19. http://www.nypost.com/seven/07192008/gossip/pagesix/sugar_baron_aides_kkk_link_120508.htm. 
  40. ^ http://www.adl.org/main_Extremism/Derek-Black.htm

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