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alemán árabe búlgaro checo chino coreano croata danés eslovaco esloveno español estonio farsi finlandés francés griego hebreo hindù húngaro indonesio inglés islandés italiano japonés letón lituano malgache neerlandés noruego polaco portugués rumano ruso serbio sueco tailandès turco vietnamita
alemán árabe búlgaro checo chino coreano croata danés eslovaco esloveno español estonio farsi finlandés francés griego hebreo hindù húngaro indonesio inglés islandés italiano japonés letón lituano malgache neerlandés noruego polaco portugués rumano ruso serbio sueco tailandès turco vietnamita

definición - EU

EU (n.)

1.an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members"he tried to take Britain into the Europen Union"

Eu (n.)

1.a bivalent and trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group

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Merriam Webster

EuEu (?). [Gr. e'y^ well, orig. neut. of e'y`s good; prob. connected with Skr. su, from the same root as E. is; or with Skr. vasu good, prob. fr. the same root as E. was.] A prefix used frequently in composition, signifying well, good, advantageous; -- the opposite of dys-.

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definición (más)

definición de EU (Wikipedia)

sinónimos - EU

frases

-(6286) 1983 EU • .eu • 1st EU–Brazil summit • 2005 EU Cup Australian rules football • 2007 Africa–EU Summit • 2007 EU Cup Australian rules football • 2007 EU Summit • 2007 in the EU • 2008 EU Cup Australian rules football • 2009 EU Cup Australian rules football • ACP-EU Development Cooperation • ACP–EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly • Agora Eu Já Sei • Albania and the EU • Audrey Eu • Ayu-mi-x II Version US+EU • British EU Battlegroups • Bugging devices in EU headquarters • COMET (EU project) • Campaign Against an EU Constitution • Canton of Eu • Center for Adaptation of Civil Service to the Standards of EU • Charles of Artois, Count of Eu • China-EU School of Law • Château d'Eu • Clearing House (EU) • Committee on Foreign Affairs (EU) • Como Eu Quero • Como é Que Se Diz Eu te Amo • Confederation of the Food and Drink Industries of the EU • Counts of Eu • Da, da, eu ştiu! • Dell.eu • EU (disambiguation) • EU (group) • EU Allowances • EU Auto MyCar • EU Community Reference Laboratory for Avian Influenza • EU Concours • EU Constitutional Treaty • EU Contest for Young Scientists Award • EU Cup • EU Directive 2001/14 • EU Directive 91/440 • EU Foreign Policy • EU Forest Watch • EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development • EU Individual Open Chess Championship • EU Institute in Japan • EU Institute of International Law • EU International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles • EU Jet • EU OPS • EU Patent • EU Select Sub-Committee A • EU Select Sub-Committee B • EU Solidarity fund • EU Tissue Directive • EU Trade Commissioner • EU arms embargo on China • EU arms embargo on the PRC • EU arms embargo on the People's Republic of China • EU directive 2001/12 • EU directive 2001/13 • EU directive 2004/51 • EU directive 95/18 • EU directive 95/19 • EU policy measures • EU three • EU-Austritt – Neutrales Freies Österreich • EU-Eco-regulation • EU-Latin America summit of 2004 protest activity • EU-Russia Centre • EU–Japan Fest • EU–U.S. Open Skies Agreement • Eremwu eu • Eu Adam • Eu Chooi Yip • Eu Phoria • Eu Sou Todos Nós • Eu Só Quero Ser Livre • Eu Tong Sen • Eu Tong Sen Street • Eu Yan Sang • Eu Yuet Mee • Eu contest • Eu cred • Eu nacional • Eu portal • Eu, Seine-Maritime • Eu- • Eutherian fetoembryonic defense system (eu-FEDS) hypothesis • FORWARD Project (EU Project) • Federation of Associations for Hunting and Conservation of the EU • Fishpathogens.eu • Free EU-Critics • G6 (EU) • Health-EU portal • History of EU • History of the EU • Hydra Project (EU Project) • Hyo Won Eu • Imooty.eu • Institute for Security Studies (EU) • Integrated Project (EU) • Interparliamentary EU Information Exchange • Israel and the EU • Jenkins Commission (EU) • John I of Brienne, Count of Eu • John II of Brienne, Count of Eu • John of Artois, Count of Eu • Koreanair.eu.com • Languages of the eu • Libertas.eu • Lim Chong Eu • List of EU people • Louis Charles, Count of Eu • March Eu • March Fong Eu • Marie of Lusignan, Countess d'Eu • Monchy-sur-Eu • Nei til EU • No to EU – Yes to Democracy • PARSIFAL Project EU • Penso em ti, eu sei • People's Movement against the EU • Perimeter (EU Project) • Philip of Artois, Count of Eu • Porque Eu Sei que É Amor • Portal eu • Prince Gaston, Count of Eu • Protests during the EU summit in Gothenburg 2001 • Raoul I of Brienne, Count of Eu • Raoul II of Brienne, Count of Eu • Religion in the EU • Rio, Eu Te Amo • Robert IV of Artois, Count of Eu • SEA-EU-NET • Se eu te pudesse abraçar • Seah Eu Chin • Seychelles community in EU • Slovenia's blockade of Croatia's EU accession • SoNorA (EU project) • Solution and EU Party • Sosialdemokrater mot EU • Special EU Programmes Body • Spring Day (EU programme) • Stasis (EU project) • Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU (CTA) • Terra Indigena Uru-Eu-Uaw-Uaw • The Courier (ACP-EU) • The European Alliance of EU-critical Movements • Tiss.EU • Tocqueville-sur-Eu • Touffreville-sur-Eu • Travelling the EU • Turkey and EU • Você passa eu acho graça • William Bourchier, Count of Eu • William of Eu • Youth against the EU

diccionario analógico


 

MESH root[Thème]

Eu [MeSH]



 

MESH root[Thème]

eu- [MeSH]


Wikipedia

.eu

                   
.eu
EURid
Introduced 2005
TLD type Country code
Status Active
Registry EURid
Sponsor European Commission
Intended use  European Union
Actual use Gradually increasing, mostly among sites with pan-European or cross-border intentions.(details)
Registration restrictions Registrants must be located within the EU
Structure Names are registered directly at second level
Documents Commission Regulation (EC) No. 874/2004
Dispute policies EU ADR
Website www.eurid.eu
DNSSEC yes

.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).[1] Launched 7 December 2005, the domain is available for organisations in and residents of EU member states. The TLD is administered by EURid, a consortium consisting of the national ccTLD registry operators of Belgium, Sweden, Italy and the Czech Republic. Trademark owners were able to submit registrations through a sunrise period, in an effort to prevent cybersquatting. Full registration started on 7 April 2006.[2]

Contents

  History

  Establishment

The .eu TLD was approved by ICANN on 22 March 2005[3] and put in the Internet root zone on 2 May 2005.[4] Even though the EU is not a country (it is a sui generis intergovernmental and supranational organisation), there are precedents of issuing top-level domains to other entities—e.g. .nato. See also GeoTLD.

.eu.int was the subdomain most used by the European Commission and the European Parliament, based on the .int generic top-level domain (gTLD) for international bodies, until 9 May 2006. The .eu domain (ccTLD) was launched in December 2005, and because of this most .eu.int domain names changed to .europa.eu on Europe day, 9 May 2006.

  Sunrise period

The Sunrise Period was broken into two phases. The first phase, which began on 7 December 2005 was to facilitate applications by registrants with prior rights based on trademarks and geographic names. The second phase began on 7 February 2006 and covered company, trade and personal names. In the case of all Sunrise applications, the application needed to be accompanied by documents proving the claim to ownership of a certain right. The decision was then made by PricewaterhouseCoopers Belgium, which had been chosen as the validation agent by EURid.

On 7 February 2006, the registry was opened for company, trade and personal names. In the first 15 minutes, there were 27,949 total applications, and after one hour, 71,235.

  Landrush

On 7 April 2006 at 11 am CET registration became possible for non-trademark holders. Most people requesting domains had asked their registrars to put their requested domains in a queue, ensuring the best chance to register a domain. This way more than 700,000 domains were registered during the first 4 hours of operation. Some large registrars like Go Daddy and small registrars like Dotster suffered from long queues and unresponsiveness, allowing people to 'beat the queue' by registering through a registrar that had already processed its queue. By August 2006, 2 Million .eu domains had been registered. It is now the third largest domain in Europe, after .de and .uk, and is the seventh largest internationally.

Bob Parsons, CEO and co-founder of Go Daddy, criticized the landrush process designed by EURid. Particularly, he condemned the use of shell companies by some registrars. In his blog, he stated "These companies, instead of only registering their real active registrars, created hundreds of new "phantom" registrars."[5] Parsons cited a group of about 400 companies, all with similar address and contact information based in New York, each registered as an LLC; in his opinion, these were phantom registrars "created to hijack the .EU landrush."

These "phantom" registrars effectively had hundreds of opportunities of registering a domain whereas a genuine registrar effectively only had one opportunity to register the same domain. Thus some registrants were crowded out of the .eu landrush process and many generic .eu domain names are now owned by the companies using these "phantom" registrars.

Patrik Lindén, spokesman for EURid, denied the allegations by Parsons, stating that "[EURid] verified that each registrar was an individual legal entity. Each had to sign an agreement with us, and prepay €10,000."[6] Parsons didn't dispute that each registrar was a separate legal entity, but noted that creating such entities was trivial: "Mr. Linden seemed proud that the EURid registry verified that each applicant was a legal entity before it was accredited. Take a moment and think about what that means. You can form a “legal entity” for $50 – an LLC – and you are good to go. Is that what we want a registry to do? Don’t we want them instead to make sure that the organization it allows to provide end-users with its domain names – especially Europe’s very own domain name – are actually in the domain name registration business?"[7]

The EURid organisation investigated some allegations of abuse, and in July 2006 announced the suspension of over 74,000 domain names and that they were suing 400 registrars for breach of contract.[8] The status of the domains was changed from ACTIVE to ON-HOLD. This meant that the domains could not be moved or have their ownership changed. The registrars also lost their access to the EURid registration database meaning that they could no longer register .eu domain names. The legal action relates to the practice of Domain name warehousing, whereby large numbers of domain names are registered, often by registrars, with the intention of subsequently selling them on to third parties. EURid rules state that applications for domains can only be made after a legitimate application has been made to a registrar. The 74,000 applications were made in the name of only three Cyprus registered companies— Ovidio Ltd, Fausto Ltd and Gabino Ltd.

The affected registrars, joined in the action by the affected registrants obtained a provisional order from the Court of First Instance in Brussels, Belgium on 27 September 2006. The court ordered EURid to release the blocked domain names or else pay a fine of €25000 per hour for each affected domain name. EURid complied with the court order and changed the status of the domains from ON HOLD to ACTIVE and restored EURid registration database access to the affected registrars.

The main legal action, that of EURid seeking the registrar agreements between EURid and the registrars in question to be dissolved has still to be heard.

  Use by the European Union institutions

The second-level domain .europa.eu has been reserved for EU institution sites, with institutions and agencies making the switch from .eu.int to .europa.eu domains on the Europe day of 9 May 2006. The European Central Bank is however not under the "Europa umbrella" due to its political independence, and uses only ECB.int, but ecb.europa.eu is an alias.

  Actual use

The main users of .eu domains are websites with pan-European or cross-border intentions and audiences. It is often used to emphasise the 'European identity' of a website, as opposed to the website having a strictly national ccTLD or global "dotcom" nature. Alternative (opportunistic) uses include Basque webpages (as the initial letters of Euskadi or the language Euskara) and Romanian, Portuguese, or Galician personal sites, as eu is the equivalent of the English pronoun 'I' in those languages.

In most countries of the EU, the national ccTLDs have the major share of the market with the remainder spread over .com/.net/.org/.info/.biz. As a result of this, .eu has had an uphill battle to gain a significant share of these national markets. The dominant players tend to be the national ccTLD and .com. The other TLDs such as .net, .org and to a lesser extent .info and .biz have progressively smaller shares of these national markets.

Over one year after the launch of .eu (5 July 2007), the number of .de domains registered was 11,079,557 according to the German .de registry's statistics page, while number of German owned .eu domains according to EURid's statistics page was 796,561. The number of .uk domains registered was 6,038,732 according to .uk registry Nominet's statistics page. The number of apparently UK owned .eu domains was 344,584.

  Parking and redirects

  • Many domain registrants use their .eu website as a web portal containing a list of their national websites with national ccTLDs. (example: www.sony.eu)
  • Other registrants have registered a .eu domain name to protect the brand name of their main website or domain, and redirect visitors to their pre-existing national ccTLD or .com website. (example: www.champagne.eu)
  • Many .eu websites are simply parking pages with Pay Per Click advertisements. ISPs and web hosters will often point unused domains to a parking webpage with PPC advertising.
  • Many apparently active .eu websites are really aliases for existing the national ccTLD or .com websites.

According to page 20 of EURid's Annual Report for 2006, the breakdown of .eu domain ownership figures on 31 December 2006 was:

  • Registrants with more than 10,000 domains: 6
  • Registrants with 5,000–9,999 domains: 18
  • Registrants with 1,000–4,999 domains: 64
  • Registrants with 100-999 domains: 1,257
  • Registrants with 10–99 domains: 20,886
  • Registrants with 6–9 domains: 22,933
  • Registrants with 5 domains: 13,200 – (66,000 domains)
  • Registrants with 4 domains: 23,007 – (92,028 domains)
  • Registrants with 3 domains: 42,887 – (128,661 domains)
  • Registrants with 2 domains: 115,543 – (231,086 domains)
  • Registrants with 1 domain: 610,679

The number of registrants with five domains or fewer registered in .eu ccTLD was, according to these statistics, 805,316. These registrants accounted for 1,128,454 domains out of 2,444,947 .eu domains registered as of 31 December 2006. These registrations, typically those of individuals and companies protecting their brand, only represent 46% of the number of registered .eu domains.

It had been actively targeted during the Sunrise period by speculators using fast track Benelux trademarks to create prior rights on various high value generic terms and during the landrush by speculators using EU front companies in the UK and Cyprus to register large numbers of domains. While speculative activity occurred with the launch of other domains, it was the scale of the activity that called into question the competence of EURid in protecting the integrity of eu ccTLD.

The number of .eu domain registrations during the year after the landrush 7 April 2006 to 6 April 2007 seems to have peaked at approximately 2.6 million .eu domains. The market adjustment that follows a landrush in any domain name extension ensures that the number of registered domains will fall as many speculative domain registrations that failed to be resold will not be renewed. This is sometimes referred to as the Junk Dump. On the morning of 7 April 2007, the number of active .eu domains stood at 2,590,160 with approximately 15,000 domains having been deleted since 5 April 2007.

Approximately 1.5 million .eu domains were up for renewal in April 2007. The EURid registry software is based on the DNS. be software and domains are physically renewed at the end of the month of their anniversary of registration. This process differs from more sophisticated registries like that of .com TLD and other ccTLDs that operate on a daily basis. As with any post-landrush phase, an extension shrinks as the Junk Dump takes effect.

The extent of the shrinkage of .eu ccTLD is difficult to estimate because EURid does not publish detailed statistics on the number of new domains registered each day. Instead it provides only a single figure for the number of active domains. The number of new registrations are combined with numbers of domains registered. Approximately 250,000 .eu domains were either deleted or moved into quarantine by 30 April.

  References

  1. ^ "IANA .eu country code entry". http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/eu.html. 
  2. ^ "Eurid's .eu Timeline". http://www.eurid.eu/en/about/facts-figures/background-timeline. 
  3. ^ "ICANN board approves agreement with EURid". EURid. 21 March 2005. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. http://web.archive.org/web/20110716220845/http://www.eurid.eu/images/Documents/Press_releases/march%2021%20-05%20icann%20apporves%20eurid%20agreement.pdf. Retrieved 26 June 2006. 
  4. ^ "Check out our domain name: .eu is now in the internet root". EURid. 2 May 2005. Archived from the original on 1 April 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100401051507/http://www.eurid.eu/images/Documents/Press_releases/may%202-05%20.eu%20in%20the%20root.pdf. Retrieved 26 June 2006. 
  5. ^ Parsons, Bob (9 April 2006). "The .EU landrush fiasco. A bumbling registry allows Europe's very own domain name to be highjacked!". Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060626031747/http://www.bobparsons.com/EULandrushFiasco.html. Retrieved 26 June 2006. 
  6. ^ Keizer, Gregg (11 April 2006). "New .EU Domain Name System Irks U.S. Firm". TechWeb Technology News. Archived from the original on 12 April 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060412195822/http://www.techweb.com/wire/ebiz/185300338. Retrieved 26 June 2006. 
  7. ^ Parsons, Bob (12 April 2006). "EURid denies .EU landrush abuse. These guys couldn't spin a top.". Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060626031724/http://www.bobparsons.com/EURidResponds.html. Retrieved 26 June 2006. 
  8. ^ News item from EURid announcing suspension of domain names and intention to sue domain name registrars. Retrieved on 26 July 2006. Archived May 13, 2007 at the Wayback Machine

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