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definición - Ge'ez_script

definición de Ge'ez_script (Wikipedia)

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Wikipedia

Ge'ez script

                   
Ge'ez
Type Abugida
Languages Ethiopian Semitic languages (e.g. Ge'ez, Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigre, Harari, etc.), Blin, Me'en, in low degree Oromo
Time period 5th–6th c. BC to present (abjad until ca. 330 AD)
Parent systems
Child systems various alphabets of Ethiopia and Eritrea
ISO 15924 Ethi, 430
Direction Left-to-right
Unicode alias Ethiopic
Unicode range U+1200–U+137F,
U+1380–U+139F,
U+2D80–U+2DDF,
U+AB00–U+AB2F
Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols.

Ge'ez (ግዕዝ Gəʿəz), is a script used as an abugida (syllable alphabet) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea but originated in an abjad (consonant-only alphabet) used to write Ge'ez, now the liturgical language of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Church. In Amharic and Tigrinya the script is often called fidäl (ፊደል), which means "script" or "alphabet".

The Ge'ez script has been adapted to write other, mostly Semitic, languages, such as Amharic in Ethiopia and Tigrinya in Eritrea and Ethiopia. It is also used for Sebatbeit, Me'en, and most other languages of Ethiopia. In Eritrea it is used for Tigre, and it has traditionally been used for Blin, a Cushitic language. Tigre, spoken in western and northern Eritrea and Eastern Sudan, is considered to resemble Ge'ez more so than do the other derivative languages. Some other languages in the Horn of Africa, such as Oromo, used to be written using Ge'ez but have migrated to Latin-based orthographies.

For the representation of sounds, this article uses a system that is common (though not universal) among linguists who work on Ethiopian Semitic languages. This differs somewhat from the conventions of the International Phonetic Alphabet. See the articles on the individual languages for information on the pronunciation.

Contents

  History and origins

The earliest inscriptions of Ethio-Semitic in Ethiopia and Eritrea date to the 9th century BC in Epigraphic South Arabian (ESA), an Abjad shared with contemporary kingdoms in South Arabia. After the 7th and 6th centuries BC, however, variants of the script arose, evolving in the direction of the Ge'ez abugida (a writing system that is also called an alphasyllabary). This evolution can be seen most clearly in evidence from inscriptions (mainly graffiti on rocks and caves) in Tigray region in northern Ethiopia and the former province of Akkele Guzay in Eritrea.[1] By the first centuries AD, what is called "Old Ethiopic" or the "Old Ge'ez alphabet" arose, an abjad written left-to-right (as opposed to boustrophedon like ESA) with letters basically identical to the first-order forms of the modern vocalized alphabet (e.g. "k" in the form of "kä"). There were also minor differences such as the letter "g" facing to the right, instead of to the left as in vocalized Ge'ez, and a shorter left leg of "l", as in ESA, instead of equally-long legs in vocalized Ge'ez (resembling the Greek letter lambda, somewhat).[2] Vocalization of Ge'ez occurred in the fourth century, and though the first completely vocalized texts known are inscriptions by Ezana, vocalized letters predate him by some years, as an individual vocalized letter exists in a coin of his predecessor Wazeba.[3][4] Roger Schneider[who?] has also pointed out (in an early 1990s unpublished paper) anomalies in the known inscriptions of Ezana that imply that he was consciously employing an archaic style during his reign, indicating that vocalization could have occurred much earlier. As a result, some[who?] believe that the vocalization may have been adopted to preserve the pronunciation of Ge'ez texts due to the already moribund or extinct status of Ge'ez, and that, by that time, the common language of the people were already later Ethio-Semitic languages. At least one of Wazeba's coins from the late 3rd/early 4th century contain a vocalized letter, some 30 or so years before Ezana.[5] Kobishchanov, Daniels, and others have suggested possible influence from the Brahmic family of alphabets in vocalization, as they are also abugidas, and Aksum was an important part of major trade routes involving India and the Greco-Roman world throughout the common era of antiquity.[6][7]

According to the beliefs of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the original consonantal form of the Ge'ez fidel was divinely revealed to Henos "as an instrument for codifying the laws", and the present system of vocalisation is attributed to a team of Aksumite scholars led by Frumentius (Abba Selama), the same missionary said to have converted King Ezana to Christianity in the 4th century AD.[8] A separate tradition, recorded by Aleqa Taye, holds that the Ge'ez consonantal alphabet was first adapted by Zegdur, a legendary king of the Ag'azyan Sabaean dynasty held to have ruled in Ethiopia c. 1300 BC.[9]

Ge'ez has 26 consonantal letters. Compared to the inventory of 29 consonants in the South Arabian alphabet, continuants of ġ, and the interdental fricatives (, ) are missing, as well as South Arabian s3 s (Ge'ez Sawt ሠ being derived from South Arabian s2 Himjar shin.PNG). On the other hand, emphatic P̣ait ጰ, a Ge'ez innovation, is a modification of Ṣädai ጸ, while Pesa ፐ is based on Tawe ተ.

Thus, there are 24 correspondences of Ge'ez and the South Arabian alphabet:

translit. h l m ś (SA s2) r s (SA s1) b t n
Ge'ez
South Arabian h l ḥ m s2 r s1 ḳ b t ḫ n
translit. ʾ k w ʿ z (SA ) y d g f
Ge'ez
South Arabian ʾ k w ʿ z y d g ṭ ṣ ḍ f

Many of the letter names are cognate with those of Phoenician, and may thus be assumed for Proto-Sinaitic.

  Ge'ez alphabets

There were two alphabets used to write the Ge'ez language, an abjad and later an abugida.

  Ge'ez abjad

The abjad, used until ca. 330 AD, had 26 consonantal letters:

h, l, ḥ, m, ś, r, s, ḳ, b, t, ḫ, n, ʾ, k, w, ʿ, z, y, d, g, ṭ, p̣, ṣ, ṣ́, f, p
translit. h l m ś r s b t n ʾ
Ge'ez
translit. k w ʿ z y d g ṣ́ f p
Ge'ez

Vowels were not indicated.

  Ge'ez abugida

  Genesis 29.11–16 in Ge’ez

Modern Ge'ez is written from left to right.

The Ge'ez abugida developed under the influence of Christian scripture by adding obligatory vocalic diacritics to the consonantal letters. Although there is a clear Greek influence, it has been suggested that the abugida system comes from missionaries from India. The diacritics for the vowels, u, i, a, e, ə, o, were fused with the consonants in a recognizable but slightly irregular way, so that the system is laid out as a syllabary. The original form of the consonant was used when the vowel was ä (/ə/), the so-called inherent vowel. The resulting forms are shown below in their traditional order. For some consonants, there is an eighth form for the diphthong -wa or -oa, and a ninth for -yä.

To represent a consonant with no following vowel, for example at the end of a syllable or in a consonant cluster, the ə (/ɨ/) form is used (the letter in the sixth column).

  ä
[ə]
u i a e ə
[ɨ]
o wa
[jə]
Hoy h  
Läwe l  
Ḥäwt  
May m
Śäwt ś  
Rəʾs r
Sat s  
Ḳaf  
Bet b  
Täwe t  
Ḫarm  
Nähas n  
ʾÄlf ʾ  
  ä
[ə]
u i a e ə
[ɨ]
o wa
[jə]
Kaf k  
Wäwe w  
ʿÄyn ʿ  
Zäy z  
Yämän y  
Dänt d  
Gäml g  
Ṭäyt  
P̣äyt  
Ṣädäy  
Ṣ́äppä ṣ́  
Äf f
Psa p  

  Labiovelar variants

The letters for the labialized velar consonants are variants of the non-labialized velar consonants:

Consonant k g
Labialized variant ḳʷ ḫʷ

Unlike the other consonants, these labiovelar ones can only be combined with 5 different vowels:

  ä i a e ə
ḳʷ
ḫʷ
  ä i a e ə

  Other alphabets

The Ge'ez abugida has been adapted to several modern languages of Ethiopia. Frequently these required additional letters.

  Additional letters

Some letters were modified to create additional consonants for use in languages other than Ge'ez. This is typically done by adding a line at the top of a similar-sounding consonant.

Consonant b t d
Affricated variant v [v] č [t͡ʃ] ǧ [d͡ʒ] č̣ [t͡ʃʼ]
Consonant k
Affricated variant ḳʰ [q] x [x]
Labialized variant hw [qʷ] [xʷ]
Consonant s n z
Palatalized variant š [ʃ] ñ [ɲ] ž [ʒ]
Consonant g ḫʷ
Nasal variant [ŋ] [ŋʷ]

The vocalized forms are shown below. Like the other labiovelars, these labiovelars can only be combined with 5 vowels.

  ä u i a e ə o wa
š
ḳʰ  
hw      
v
č
[ŋʷ]        
  ä u i a e ə o wa
ñ
x  
     
ž
ǧ
[ŋ]
č̣

  Letters used in modern languages

Amharic uses all the basic consonants, plus the ones indicated below. Some of the Ge'ez labiovelar letter variants are also used.

Tigrinya has all the basic consonants, the Ge'ez labiovelar letter variants except for ḫʷ (ኈ) plus the ones indicated below. A few of the basic consonants are falling into disuse in Eritrea. See Tigrinya language#Writing system for details.

Tigre uses the basic consonants except for ś (ሠ), (ኀ) and (ፀ). It also uses the ones indicated below. It does not use the Ge'ez labiovelar letter variants.

Blin uses the basic consonants except for ś (ሠ), (ኀ) and (ፀ). It also uses the ones indicated below and the Ge'ez labiovelar letter variants.

  š ḳʰ hw v č [ŋʷ] ñ x ž ǧ [ŋ] č̣
 
Amharic        
Tigrinya    
Tigre                  
Blin    

Note: "v" is used for words of foreign origin except for in some Gurage languages (e.g. cravat, 'tie' from French), and "x" is pronounced "h" in Amharic.

  List order

For Ge'ez, Amharic, Tigrinya and Tigre, the usual sorting order is called halehame (h–l–ħ–m). Where the labiovelar variants are used, these come immediately after the basic consonant, and are followed by other variants. In Tigrinya, for example, the letters based on ከ come in this order: ከ, ኰ, ኸ, ዀ. In Blin, the sorting order is slightly different.

The alphabetical order is similar to that found in some other South Semitic scripts, and curiously, in the ancient Ugaritic alphabet (which also attests the northern Semitic '–b–g–d (abugida) order). Dillman notes[10] that, excepting newer forms, the letters in the first half of one order are all those found in the second half of the other order (though not in the same sequence); he suggests this would indicate a time when Semitic letters were divided into two rows, and the alphabet might commence with either row.

  African diaspora usage

Ge'ez is a sacred script in the Rastafarian religion. Roots reggae musicians have used it in album art.

The film 500 Years Later (፭፻-ዓመታት በኋላ) was the first mainstream Western documentary to use Ge'ez characters, which were used in the title. The script also appears in the trailer and promotional material of the film.

  Numerals

Numeral systems by culture
Hindu-Arabic numerals
Western Arabic (Hindu numerals)
Eastern Arabic
Indian family
Tamil
Burmese
Khmer
Lao
Mongolian
Thai
East Asian numerals
Chinese
Japanese
Suzhou
Korean
Vietnamese
Counting rods
Alphabetic numerals
Abjad
Armenian
Āryabhaṭa
Cyrillic
Ge'ez
Greek
Georgian
Hebrew
other historical systems
Aegean
Attic
Babylonian
Brahmi
Egyptian
Etruscan
Inuit
Kharosthi
Mayan
Quipu
Roman
Positional systems by base
Decimal (10)
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 24, 26, 27, 30, 32, 36, 60, 64, 85
Balanced ternary
List of numeral systems

Ge'ez uses a systems of ones and tens comparable to the Hebrew, Arabic abjad and Greek numerals, but unlike these systems, rather than giving numeric values to letters, it has digits derived from the Coptic letter-numbers:

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
× 1
× 10
× 100  
× 10.000

It has been claimed by Georges Ifrah that Ethiopian numerals were borrowed from the Greek numerals in the fourth century CE,[11] but this has been disputed by Ayele Bekerie of Cornell University, who claims that the Ethiopian system was developed independently.[12]

  Unicode

Ethiopic has been assigned Unicode 3.0 codepoints between U+1200 and U+137F (decimal 4608–4991), containing the consonantal letters for Ge'ez, Amharic, and Tigrinya, punctuation and numerals. Additionally, in Unicode 4.1, there is the supplement range from U+1380 to U+139F (decimal 4992–5023) containing letters for Sebatbeit and tonal marks, and the extended range between U+2D80 and U+2DDF (decimal 11648–11743) containing letters needed for writing Sebatbeit, Me'en and Blin. Finally in Unicode 6.0, there is the extended-A range from U+AB00 to U+AB2F (decimal 43776–43823) containing letters for Gamo-Gofa-Dawro, Basketo and Gumuz.

Ethiopic[1]
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+120x
U+121x
U+122x
U+123x
U+124x
U+125x
U+126x
U+127x
U+128x
U+129x
U+12Ax
U+12Bx
U+12Cx
U+12Dx
U+12Ex
U+12Fx
U+130x
U+131x
U+132x
U+133x
U+134x
U+135x
U+136x
U+137x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 6.1
Ethiopic Supplement[1]
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+138x
U+139x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 6.1
Ethiopic Extended[1]
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+2D8x
U+2D9x
U+2DAx
U+2DBx
U+2DCx
U+2DDx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 6.1
Ethiopic Extended-A[1]
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+AB0x
U+AB1x
U+AB2x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 6.1

  See also

  Literature

  References

  1. ^ Rodolfo Fattovich, "Akkälä Guzay" in von Uhlig, Siegbert, ed. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C. Weissbaden: Otto Harrassowitz KG, 2003, p.169.
  2. ^ Etienne Bernand, A.J. Drewes, and Roger Schneider, "Recueil des inscriptions de l'Ethiopie des périodes pré-axoumite et axoumite, tome I". Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. Paris: Boccard, 1991.
  3. ^ Grover Hudson, Aspects of the history of Ethiopic writing in "Bulletin of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies 25", pp. 1-12.
  4. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay. Aksum: A Civilization of Late Antiquity. Edinburgh: University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6
  5. ^ Stuart Munro-Hay, Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity, p. 207.
  6. ^ Yuri M. Kobishchanov. Axum (Joseph W. Michels, editor; Lorraine T. Kapitanoff, translator). University Park, Pennsylvania: Penn State University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-271-00531-9
  7. ^ Peter T. Daniels, William Bright, "The World's Writing Systems", Oxford University Press. Oxford: 1996.
  8. ^ Official website of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church
  9. ^ Aleqa Taye, History of the Ethiopian People, 1914
  10. ^ Ethiopic Grammar p. 18-19.
  11. ^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. Wiley. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-471-39340-5. 
  12. ^ Teresi, Dick (2003). Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science--from the Babylonians to the Maya. Simon and Schuster. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-7432-4379-7. 

  External links

   
               

 

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