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definición - INDIANAPOLIS MOTOR SPEEDWAY

definición de INDIANAPOLIS MOTOR SPEEDWAY (Wikipedia)

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Wikipedia

Indianapolis Motor Speedway

                   
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
The Brickyard
Indianapolismotorspeedway2011.png

Ims aerial.jpg

Aerial photo of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.
Location 4790 West 16th Street
Indianapolis, Indiana 46222
Time zone GMT−5
Capacity 400,000[1]
Owner Hulman and Co.
Operator Indianapolis Motor Speedway Corporation (subsidiary of Hulman and Co.)
Broke ground March 15, 1909
Opened August 12, 1909
Construction cost $3 million
Architect Carl G. Fisher, James A. Allison, F. H. Wheeler, and Arthur Newby
Major events

IZOD IndyCar Series
Indianapolis 500–mile race

NASCAR Sprint Cup Series
Brickyard 400

FIM MotoGP
Red Bull Indianapolis GP
Rectangular Oval Track
Surface asphalt and brick
Length 2.500 mi (4.023 km)
Turns 4
Banking Turns: 9° 12´
Straights: 0°
Lap record 0:00:37.895; 237.498 mph (Arie Luyendyk, Treadway Racing, 1996, IRL IndyCar Series)
Grand Prix Road Course (2000-2007)
Surface asphalt and brick
Length 2.605 mi (4.192 km)
Turns 13
Lap record 0:01:10.399; 133.546 mph (Rubens Barrichello, Scuderia Ferrari, 2004, Formula One)
Grand Prix Road Course (2008-)
Surface asphalt and brick
Length 2.534 mi (4.078 km)
Turns 13
Motorcycle Course
Surface asphalt and brick
Length 2.621 mi (4.218 km)
Turns 16
Lap record 0:01:39.730; 94.611 mph (Dani Pedrosa, Repsol Honda, 2009, MotoGP)
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
The Indianapolis Motor Speedway under construction
Indianapolis Motor Speedway is located in Indiana
Location: 4790 W. 16th St., Speedway, Indiana
Coordinates: 39°47′54″N 86°13′58″W / 39.79833°N 86.23278°W / 39.79833; -86.23278Coordinates: 39°47′54″N 86°13′58″W / 39.79833°N 86.23278°W / 39.79833; -86.23278
Built: 1909
Architect: Andrews, Park Taliaferro
Architectural style: Motor Racing Circuit
Governing body: Private
NRHP Reference#: 75000044[2]
Significant dates
Added to NRHP: March 7, 1975
Designated NHLD: February 27, 1987[3]

The Indianapolis Motor Speedway, located in Speedway, Indiana (an enclave suburb of Indianapolis) in the United States, is the home of the Indianapolis 500-Mile Race and the Brickyard 400.[4]

It has existed since 1909, and is the original Speedway, the first racing facility so named. With a permanent seating capacity for more than 400,000 people,[1] it is the highest-capacity stadium-type facility in the world.[5]

Considered relatively flat by American standards, the track is a two-and-a-half-mile, nearly rectangular oval with dimensions that have remained essentially unchanged since its inception: four 1/4-mile turns, two 5/8-mile long straightaways between the fourth and first and second and third turns, and two 1/8-mile short straightaways, termed "short chutes," between the first and second, and third and fourth turns.

A modern infield road course was constructed between 1998 and 2000, incorporating the western and southern portions of the oval (including the southwest turn) to create a 2.605-mile (4.192 km) track. In 2008, the road course was modified to replace the southwest turn with an additional infield section, for motorcycle use, resulting in a 2.621-mile (4.218 km) course. Altogether, the current grounds have expanded from an original 320 acres (1.3 km2) on which the Speedway was first built to cover an area of over 559 acres (2.3 km2). Placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1987, it currently remains the only such landmark to be affiliated with automotive racing history.

In addition to the Indianapolis 500, the speedway also hosts NASCAR's Brickyard 400. From 2000 to 2007 the speedway also hosted the United States Grand Prix for Formula One. The inaugural USGP race drew an estimated 400,000 spectators, setting a Formula One attendance record. In 2008, the Speedway added the Indianapolis motorcycle Grand Prix, a Grand Prix motorcycle racing event.

Since August 19, 1909, 248 automobile races have taken place, with 137 separate drivers winning. After winning his fifth United States Grand Prix at Indianapolis in 2006, Formula One driver Michael Schumacher holds the record for most victories between the three major events (Indianapolis 500, Brickyard 400 and the F1 USGP), with all taking place on the Formula One version of the road course. A.J. Foyt, Al Unser and Rick Mears each won the Indianapolis 500 four times on the traditional oval, and Jeff Gordon has also won four times on the oval in the Brickyard 400. No driver to date has won any combination of the three major events, with only two drivers, (Juan Pablo Montoya and Jacques Villeneuve), having competed in all three. With Montoya winning the Indy 500, finishing 4th in the US Grand Prix, and finishing 2nd in the Brickyard 400. Villeneuve also won the Indy 500, had a best finish for 4th in the US Grand Prix, and a 29th place in the Brickyard 400. Johnny Aitken holds the record for total wins at the track, with 15 victories (all on the oval), during the 1909, 1910 and 1916 seasons.[6]

On the grounds of the Speedway is the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Museum, which opened in 1956, and the Brickyard Crossing Golf Resort, which originally opened as the Speedway Golf Course in 1929. The Speedway was also the venue of the opening ceremonies for the 1987 Pan American Games.

Contents

  History

  Early history

  Carl Graham Fisher (1874–1938) of Indiana, an American vehicle parts and highway entrepreneur, co-founder and first President of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. May 1909.

Indianapolis businessman Carl G. Fisher first envisioned building the speedway in 1905 after assisting friends racing in France and seeing that Europe held the upper hand in automobile design and craftsmanship. Fisher began thinking of a better means of testing cars before delivering them to consumers. At the time, racing was just getting started on horse tracks and public roads. Fisher noticed how dangerous and ill-suited the makeshift courses were for racing or testing. He also argued that spectators didn't get their money's worth, as they were only able to get a brief glimpse of cars speeding down a linear road.[7]

Fisher proposed building a circular track three to five miles (8 km) long with smooth 100–150 ft wide surfaces. Such a track would give manufacturers a chance to test cars at sustained speeds and give drivers a chance to learn their limits. Fisher predicted speeds could reach up to 120 mph (190 km/h) on a five-mile (8 km) course. He visited the Brooklands circuit outside of London in 1907, and after viewing the banked layout, it solidified his determination to build the speedway.[7] With dozens of car makers and suppliers in Indiana, Fisher proclaimed "Indianapolis is going to be the world's greatest center of horseless carriage manufacturer, what could be more logical than building the world's greatest racetrack right here?".[8]

Fisher began looking around the Indianapolis area for a site to build his track, he rejected two potential sites before finding level farmland, Pressley Farm, totaling 328 acres just five miles (8 km) outside of Indianapolis. In December 1908 he convinced three partners; James Allison, Arthur Newby and Frank Wheeler, to join in purchasing the property for $72,000. The group incorporated Indianapolis Motor Speedway company on March 20, 1909 with a capitalization of $250,000, with Fisher and James Allison in for $75,000 apiece and Frank Wheeler and Arthur Newby on-board for $50,000 each.[7]

Construction of the track started in March 1909. Fisher had to quickly downsize his planned three-mile (5 km) oval with a two mile (3 km) road course to a 2.5 miles (4.0 km) oval to leave room for the grandstands. Reshaping of the land for the speedway took 500 laborers, 300 mules and a fleet of steam-powered machinery. The track surface consisted of graded and packed soil covered by two inches of gravel, two inches of limestone covered with taroid (a solution of tar and oil), one to two inches of crushed stone chips that were also drenched with taroid, and a final topping of crushed stone. Workers also constructed dozens of buildings, several bridges, grandstands with 12,000 seats, and an eight-foot perimeter fence with a white-with-green-trim paint scheme used throughout the property.[7]

The first event ever held at the speedway was a helium gas-filled balloon competition on Saturday, June 5, 1909, more than two months before the oval was completed.[9] The event drew a reported 40,000 people.[8] Nine balloons lifted off "racing" for trophies, a balloon by the name of Universal City won the race, landing 382 miles (615 km) away in Alabama after spending more than a day aloft.[7] The first motorsports event at the track consisted of 7 motorcycle races, sanctioned by the Federation of American Motorcyclists (FAM) on August 14, 1909. This was originally planned as a two-day, 15-race program, but ended before the first day was completed, due to concerns over suitability of the track surface for motorcycle use.[6] These early events were largely planned by one of the top names in early auto racing promotion, Ernest Moross, who earned fame for his bold and sometimes outlandish barnstorming events at fairgrounds tracks with racing star Barney Oldfield.

  Indianapolis Motor Speedway before the grand opening - June 1909

On August 19, 1909, fifteen carmakers' teams arrived at the track for practice. The track surface again became a concern with drivers being covered in dirt, oil, and tar and with ruts and chuckholes beginning to form in the turns. Speedway workers oiled and rolled the track prior to the gates opening to the public. Fifteen to twenty thousand spectators showed up, paying at the most $1 for a ticket. Halfway through the first 250 miles (400 km) event, race leader Louis Chevrolet was temporarily blinded when a stone smashed his goggles. Wilfred Bourque, driving in a Knox, suffered a suspected rear-axle failure resulting in his car flipping end over end on the front stretch before crashing into a fence post. Both he and his mechanic, Harry Halcomb, died at the scene.[7]

The first day of car racing resulted in four finishes and two land speed records, but concerns over safety led AAA officials to consider canceling the remaining events. Fisher promised the track would be repaired by the next day and convinced officials that the show would go on. The second day saw 20,000 spectators, no major incidents and additional speed records broken.[7]

On the third day of racing, 35,000 spectators showed up to watch the grand finale 300 miles (480 km) race. At 175 miles (282 km) into the race, the right front tire blew on Charlie Merz's car. His car mowed down five fence posts and toppled dozens of spectators. Two spectators and his mechanic, Claude Kellum, were killed in the crash. Ten laps later, driver Bruce Keen struck a pothole and crashed into a bridge support. The race was then halted and the remaining drivers given engraved certificates instead of trophies. The race resulted in the AAA boycotting any future events at the speedway unless significant improvements were made.[7]

  Indianapolis Motor Speedway - Automotive Industries, Volume 21 - September 23, 1909

Fisher and his partners began looking into the idea of paving the track with bricks or concrete. Paving in 1909 was still relatively new with only a few miles of public roads paved, leaving little knowledge of what would work best. Traction tests were conducted on bricks, proving they could hold up. Only less than a month after the first car races, the repaving project began. Five Indiana manufacturers supplied 3.2 million ten-pound bricks to the track. Each was hand laid over a two inch cushion of sand, then leveled and gaps filled with mortar. At the same time, a 33-inch-high concrete wall was constructed in front of the main grandstand and around all four corners to protect spectators.[7] The final brick added to the track was made of gold and laid in a special ceremony by Governor Thomas R. Marshall. Today, 3 feet (0.91 m), or one yard, of original bricks remain at the start/finish line, giving the track its nickname "The Brickyard".[8]

In December 1909, eleven drivers and a few motorcyclists returned for speed trials. Drivers soon reached speeds of up to 112 mph (180 km/h) on the new surface.[7] Racing returned in 1910, with a total of 66 automobile races held during three holiday weekends (Memorial Day, Fourth of July and Labor Day).[6] Each weekend featured two or three races of 100-mile (160 km) to 200-mile (320 km) distance, with several shorter contests. Each race stood on its own and earned its own trophy. All races were sanctioned by the AAA (as were the Indianapolis 500 races up through 1955). 1910 also saw the speedway host the National Aviation Meet, featuring Wilbur and Orville Wright and highlighted by Walter Brookins setting a then world record by taking a plane up to 4,938 feet (1,505 m).[8]

A change in marketing focus led to only one race per year beginning in 1911.[6] An estimated 80,000 spectators attended the first 500 miles (800 km) race on Memorial Day May 30, 1911. 40 cars competed with Ray Harroun winning at the brisk average speed of 74.602 miles per hour (120.060 km/h). "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing" was born.[8]

  1912–1929: The Golden Age

  Advertisement for an Indianapolis Motor Speedway "Harvest Classic" race.

A classic race followed in 1912 when Ralph DePalma lost a five lap lead with five laps to go when his car broke down. As DePalma pushed his car around the circuit, Joe Dawson made up the deficit to win. Three of the next four winners were European, with DePalma being the exception as an American national, though originally Italian born. These races gave Indy a worldwide reputation and international drivers began to enter. The 1916 race was shortened to 120 laps, for a number reasons including a lack of entries from Europe (there were so few entries the Speedway itself entered several cars), a lack of oil, and out of respect for the war in Europe.[8]

On September 9, 1916, the Speedway hosted a day of short racing events termed the Harvest Classic, composed of three races held at 20, 50 and 100-mile (160 km) distances.[10][11][12] Johnny Aitken, in a Peugeot, in the end triumphed in all three events, his final victories at the facility. The Harvest Classic contests were the last races other than the Indianapolis 500 to be held on the grounds for seventy-eight years.

Racing was interrupted in 1917–1918 by World War I, when the facility served as a military aviation repair and refueling depot. When racing resumed, speeds quickly increased.

In 1921, Speedway co-founder Wheeler committed suicide.[13]

At the 1925 event, Pete DePaolo became the first to average 100 mph (160 km/h) for the race,[8] with a speed of 101.13 mph (162.75 km/h).[14]

In 1926, Fisher and Allison "were offered a fortune" for the Speedway site by a local real estate developer.[14] They refused, selling instead to former racing driver (and World War One fighter ace) Edward V. Rickenbacker in 1927. (How much he paid was not revealed.)[15] Rickenbacker built a golf course in the infield.[15] The next year, Allison died from pneumonia.[15]

  1930s: The 'Junkyard' Formula

With the Great Depression hitting the nation, the purse dropped from a winners share of $50,000 and a total of $98,250 in 1930 to $18,000 and $54,450 respectively. It's a common misconception the rules were "dumbed down" to what was called the "junkyard formula" to allow more entries during the depression. The rules were indeed changed, but it was due to an effort by the Speedway to get more car manufacturers involved in the race by discouraging the entry of specialized racing machines which dominated the 500 during the mid- to late-'20s. The rule changes in fact were already being laid out before the market crash.

In 1931, Dave Evans performed a remarkable feat when his Cummins Diesel Special completed the entire 500 miles without a pit stop.[16] It was also the first diesel entrant. A record of 42 cars started the 1933 500. With one exception between 1934 until 1979, 33 drivers started the 500; 1947 saw 30 cars start due to a strike by certain teams affiliated with the ASPAR drivers, owners and sponsors association.[8]

For 1934, a maximum fuel consumption limit was imposed, 45 US gal (37 imp gal; 170 l).[16] It became 42.5 US gal (35.4 imp gal; 161 l) in 1935 and 37.5 US gal (31.2 imp gal; 142 l) in 1936.[16] When the limits saw "several top competitors running out of fuel in the closing stages", the limits were abandoned,[16] though use of pump gasoline was still mandatory.[16]

By the early 1930s, however, the increasing speeds began to make the track increasingly dangerous, and in the period 1931–1935 there were 15 fatalities. This forced another repavement, with tarmac replacing the bricks in parts of the track. In addition, during the '35–'36 seasons the inside wall was removed in the corners, the angle of the outside wall in relation to the track was changed to keep cars from launching over, hard crash helmets became mandatory, and the first yellow light system was devised around the track. The danger of the track during this period, however, didn't stop Louis Meyer or Wilbur Shaw from becoming the first two three-time winners, with Shaw also being the first back-to-back winner in 1939 and 1940.[8]

  1940s: Start of the Hulman Era

  The IMS wing and wheel logo has been used since 1909. This variation was used from the 1970s through 2008.

At the beginning of the 1940s, the track required further improvement. In 1941, half of "Gasoline Alley," the garage area, burned down before the race. With US involvement in World War II, the 1942 500-Mile race was cancelled in December, 1941. Late in 1942, a ban on all auto racing led to the canceling of the 500-Mile Race for the rest of the war for a total of four years (1942–1945). The track was more or less abandoned during the war and was in bad shape.[8]

Many of the locals conceded that the Speedway would be sold after the war and become a housing development. With the end of the war in sight, on November 29, 1944, three-time 500 winner Wilbur Shaw came back to do a 500-mile (800 km) tire test approved by the government for Firestone. Shaw was shocked at the state of the Speedway and contacted owner Eddie Rickenbacker, only to discover that it was for sale. Shaw then sent out letters to the automobile industry to try to find a buyer. All the responses indicated that the Speedway would be turned into a private facility for the buyer. Shaw then looked around for someone to buy the Speedway, who would reopen the racetrack as a public venue. He found Terre Haute, Indiana businessman Tony Hulman. Meetings were set up and the Speedway was purchased on November 14, 1945. Though not officially acknowledged, the purchase price for the Speedway was reported by the Indianapolis Star and News to be $750,000. Major renovations and repairs were made at a quick pace to the frail Speedway, in time for the 1946 race. Since then the Speedway has continued to grow. Stands have been built and remodeled many times over, suites and museums were added, and many other additions helped bring back Indy's reputation as a great track.[8]

  1950s: The Fabulous Roadsters

In the 1950s, cars were topping out at 150 mph (240 km/h), helping to draw more and more fans. The low-slung, sleek cars were known as roadsters and the Kurtis, Kuzma, and Watson chassis dominated the field. Nearly all were powered by the Offenhauser, or "Offy", engines. The crowd favorite Novi, with its unique sound and look, was the most powerful car of the decade that dominated time trials. However, they would never make the full 500 miles (800 km) in first place, often breaking down before the end or having to make too many pit stops because of the massive engine's thirst for fuel and the weight that went with the extra fuel.[8]

The track’s reputation improved so much the 500-Mile Race became part of the Formula One World Championship for 11 years (1950–1960), even though none of the Indy drivers raced in Formula One and only Ferrari's Alberto Ascari of the F1 drivers at the time raced in the 500. Five time World Champion Juan Fangio practiced at the Speedway in 1958, but ultimately decided against it. The 1950s were also the most dangerous era of American racing. Of the 33 drivers to qualify for the 1953 race, nearly half, 16, were to eventually die in racing accidents.[8]

  1960s: Rear Engine Revolution

  Starting line, featuring the Yard of Bricks
  The pylon

In October 1961, the final remaining brick sections of the track were paved over with asphalt, with the exception of a distinct three-foot-wide line of bricks at the start/finish line. The "Brickyard" thus became known for its "Yard of Bricks". Ironically, a wave of F1 drivers went to the Speedway in the 1960s, and the mid-engine revolution that was started in F1 by the Cooper team changed the face of the 500 as well; since Jim Clark's win in 1965, every winner has driven a rear-engined car. Graham Hill won the following year in his first attempt, eventually to become the only driver to date to achieve auto racing's "Triple Crown of Motorsport" of winning the Monaco Grand Prix, Indianapolis 500, and Le Mans 24 Hours. There were enough Americans to compete with them, with A.J. Foyt, Mario Andretti, and Bobby and Al Unser leading the charge in the 1960s and 1970s, of whom Foyt and Al Unser would eventually become, respectively, the first two of three drivers, to date, to win four times each.[8]

From 1970 to 1981, Indianapolis had a twin in the city of Ontario, California by the name of the Ontario Motor Speedway. This track was known as the "Indianapolis of the West" and the home of the California 500 but was a financial failure due to bad management and not holding enough races on the racetrack.[8]

The 1980s brought a new generation of speedsters, led by four-time race winner Rick Mears who also broke the 220 mph (355 km/h) speed mark in qualifying (1989) and won six pole positions. Other stars of the decade included Danny Sullivan, Bobby Rahal, and F1 veteran Emerson Fittipaldi. The 1989 race came down to a final ten-lap, thrilling duel between Fittipaldi and Al Unser, Jr., culminating in Unser crashing in the third turn of the 199th lap after making contact with Fittpaldi's right front tire.[8]

The early 1990s witnessed Arie Luyendyk winning in the fastest 500 to date, with an average speed 185.981 mph (299.307 km/h). Mears becoming the third four-time winner after a late-race duel with Michael Andretti in 1991, and Al Unser, Jr. finally securing victory by defeating last-place-starting driver Scott Goodyear by 0.043 of a second in 1992, the closest finish in race history to date. The 500 got a new look in 1996 when it became an Indy Racing League event, formed as a rival to CART.[8]

  NASCAR and IROC at Indy

From 1919 to 1993, the 500 was the only race run at the Brickyard. When Tony George (Hulman's grandson) inherited the track, he brought more racing to the Speedway, with NASCAR in 1994 (the Brickyard 400, known from 2005 to 2009 as the Allstate 400 at The Brickyard), and an International Race of Champions (IROC) event in 1998.[8]

  Map of the basic speedway

Starting in 2012 the Brickyard 400 will be supported by both the NASCAR Nationwide series and also the GRAND-AM ROLEX series. From 1998–2003, an IROC event was held as a support race. Since 1982, nearby Indianapolis Raceway Park has held a NASCAR Nationwide Series event which, since the Brickyard 400 in 1994, has been held the night prior to the IMS event. Since 1995, a Camping World Truck Series race has also been held at IRP.

  2000s: Unification

The early 2000s saw drivers from the rival CART series begin to cross over to compete at the Indianapolis 500. In the 2000 Indianapolis 500, multi-time CART champion team Chip Ganassi Racing brought his drivers Juan Pablo Montoya and Jimmy Vasser to Indianapolis. Montoya qualified 2nd, led 167 laps and won the race going away, becoming the seventh Indy 500 rookie to win the race. The very next year, Team Penske made its return to the Indianapolis 500 after a five year absence and was joined by Ganassi, Walker Racing and Michael Andretti, driving for Team Kool Green in a separate effort headed by Kim Green, known as Team Motorola. For the second straight year an Indy rookie won the race as Hélio Castroneves took the checkered flag. Roger Penske then elected to move his entire operation over to the IRL beginning in 2002, taking Castroneves and teammate Gil de Ferran with him. After fielding one car in 2002, Ganassi Racing followed Penske to the IRL full time for the 2003 season. Michael Andretti, who had left his long-time ride at Newman-Haas Racing because he wanted to run the Indianapolis 500 again (something they weren't willing to do), bought a majority interest in CART's Team Green, who returned to Indianapolis in 2002 with Dario Franchitti, Paul Tracy and Michael Andretti, and moved it to the IRL that same year as Andretti Green Racing, and in 2004 former CART champion Bobby Rahal's operation moved to the IRL as Rahal Letterman Racing. Castroneves repeated his Indianapolis 500 win in 2002 despite controversial circumstances involving a late race caution and a pass made by Tracy, and his teammate de Ferran won in 2003.[8]

In 2003, the Firestone Indy Lights Series, a minor league series to the IndyCar Series, made history with the first May race at the track since 1910, other than the 500. The Freedom 100, first held during the final qualifying weekend, has been moved to Carburetion Day on the Friday before the 500. From 2005-2007, the Firestone Indy Lights Series became the first racing series since 1916 to run at the famous race course twice in one year. The first event being the Freedom 100, held on the oval track as part of the Indianapolis 500 weekend, and the second event, the Liberty Challenge during the United States Grand Prix weekend, competing on the Grand Prix road course.[17]

Buddy Rice became the first American driver since 1998 to win the race in the rain-shortened 2004 Indianapolis 500. At the time, Rice drove for the team co-owned by 1986 Indianapolis 500 winner Bobby Rahal and the Indiana native television talk show host and comedian David Letterman. In 2005, Danica Patrick became the first female driver to lead the race at Indianapolis, first when acquiring it for a lap near the 125-mile (201 km) mark while cycling through pit stops, and late in the race when she stayed out one lap longer than her rivals during a set of green-flag pit stops. Dan Wheldon would go on to win the 2005 Indianapolis 500.[8]

Sam Hornish Jr. became the first driver to ever overtake for the lead on the race's final lap, ultimately winning the 2006 Indianapolis 500 in the last 450 feet (140 m) by a 0.0635-second margin over rookie Marco Andretti. Dario Franchitti became the first native of Scotland since Jim Clark's victory in 1965, to win the rain-shortened 2007 Indianapolis 500.[8]

In mid February, 2008, Champ Car filed for bankruptcy. In late February, an agreement was reached for Champ Car to be merged with the IRL, and the first IRL IndyCar Series season since the unification took place in 2008. Scott Dixon, driving for Chip Ganassi Racing, became the first native of New Zealand to win the 2008 Indianapolis 500.[8]

In the 100th anniversary year of the construction of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, Hélio Castroneves became the sixth three-time winner of the 500 Mile Race in the 2009 Indianapolis 500. Danica Patrick also had her best finish ever (third place) in the race, also the best finish ever by a woman in the history of the Indianapolis 500.[8]

  Formula One and road course racing

  Formula One Grand Prix layout

In 1998, Tony George arranged for Formula One to return to the US for the first time since 1991. Two years of renovation and new construction for an Indy-based road course led to the first United States Grand Prix there in 2000, a race which was a great success. The 2001 event's success (185,000 fans were reported in attendance) was even more important with the race, then originally held in September, being the largest international sporting event held in the United States after September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.[18]

  Cars wind through the infield section at the start of the 2003 United States Grand Prix.

The Grand Prix road course, unlike the oval, is raced in a clockwise direction. This follows the general practice of Formula One, in which the vast majority of circuits (excepting Abu Dhabi, Imola, Interlagos, Istanbul Park, Singapore, and Yeongam) run clockwise.

The short history of the event is littered with controversies. The 2002 United States Grand Prix was marred by a bizarre ending, in which Michael Schumacher, having already clinched the championship, seemingly tried to stage a dead heat with team-mate Rubens Barrichello. The official timings showed Barrichello ahead by 0.011 seconds at the line, leading fans and media to dub the event a farce.[19] The 2002 race was also the first ever Formula One race to use SAFER barriers.

The 2005 United States Grand Prix turned out to be one of the most controversial races in motorsport history. New rules meant cars had to use the same tires throughout the event. A crash during practice on the banked corner (the only banked corner on the F1 calendar) led to Michelin realizing their tires were ill-equipped for the banking, and could complete no more than a fraction of the race before failing. The Michelin teams were unable to find a solution, and while debates raged until the second, the Michelin teams pulled into the pits at the end of the parade lap, leaving only the 3 Bridgestone teams to contest the race. As two of these teams were backmarkers under normal circumstances, this led to Ferrari winning the race, accepting the trophies from a presentation party hastily assembled after Speedway boss Tony George refused to take part.[19]

The perceived outrage of this event put the future of Formula One at Indianapolis in doubt. However, the event was held on July 2, 2006, on the American Fourth of July weekend, with American Scott Speed driving for the new Scuderia Toro Rosso team. Speed had become the first American in Formula One since Michael Andretti drove for McLaren in 1993. In this race, Speed became the first American to compete in a United States Grand Prix since Eddie Cheever in 1989.[19]

During the 2006 United States Grand Prix, Formula One boss Bernie Ecclestone said that it did not matter to him whether or not there was a Grand Prix in America, but also said he would be happy to discuss a new contract for the race. There was also a rumor going around that in future seasons, there would be two Grands Prix held in the United States. Even with Ecclestone's statements, the 2007 calendar was confirmed on October 31, 2006, following an extension of the race contract into 2007.[20]

On July 12, 2007, it was announced that Formula One would not return to the IMS for 2008, although a continuation of USGP at the IMS has not been completely ruled out for the future. Tony George stated difficulties in meeting the demands of Ecclestone to continue to host the event. George and Ecclestone were in talks to revive the race for 2009, but no deal was made for a future race in Indianapolis.[21] In a statement on April 10, 2008, Indianapolis chairman Joie Chitwood said that the "door is open" for Formula One to return to the circuit.[22] However, on May 25, 2010 it was announced that Formula One would return to the United States in 2012 at a new purpose–built track in Austin, Texas.

  Motorcycle racing and a new road course

  Moto GP Grand Prix layout

On July 16, 2007, the Speedway announced that it would host a round of Grand Prix motorcycle racing beginning in 2008. The race was held for the first time on September 14, 2008, backed by Red Bull and known as the Red Bull Indianapolis GP. This marked the first motorcycle racing event at the facility since its first month of operation, in August 1909.

Modifications approved by the FIA and FIM were made to the former Formula One circuit, bringing the new track to a total of 16 turns. The motorcycle course runs counter-clockwise, in the same direction as the oval events at the Speedway, and completely bypass the banking of the oval with a new infield section inside Turn 1 ("Snake Pit complex"). Also, the double-hairpin at the Hulman Straight was replaced with traditional esses. This construction was completed before the opening day of the 92nd Indianapolis 500 in May, 2008.[23] The layout can be run clockwise (car use, without the Snake Pit complex) or anticlockwise (for motorcycle use, with the Snake Pit complex).

The first Moto GP event was heavily affected by the arrival of the remnants of Hurricane Ike. On race day, the weather was overcast and cold, with a 100% chance of rain during the event. The 125cc class started on a dry track, and went on until rain began to fall, with 7 laps to go. Since two-thirds of the scheduled distance had been run, the race was declared over and full points were given. Rain intensity then led the organizers to postpone the 250cc race until after the MotoGP race, hoping the winds and rain would stop. The MotoGP race was started at the scheduled time, with a very wet track but little rain. It ran until the 21st lap, when strong winds again began to blow. Fearing for the safety of the riders, the stewards red-flagged the race, which was declared completed, and full World Championship points were given. The winds did not stop after the race, and safety concerns ultimately led to the cancellation of the 250cc race.[24]

  Super Weekend at the Brickyard

On September 3, 2009, Grand-Am tested IMS as a potential future venue. A total of nine cars, representing both the Daytona Prototype and GT classes, participated. Laps were run in a clockwise direction (like Formula 1 at this track, and unlike MotoGP). For most of the test, the southwest turn of the oval was used (as it had been with Formula 1). A brief period in the middle of the day (approximately 20 minutes) was spent turning laps that included the southwest MotoGP road course section.[25]

On July 6, 2011 at a press conference held at the start-finish line, officials with the speedway, NASCAR, and the Grand American Road Racing Association announced the new Super Weekend at the Brickyard taking place July 26–29, 2012. The NASCAR Nationwide Series will move from Lucas Oil Raceway at Indianapolis to the Brickyard to run a Saturday race while both the Rolex Sports Car Series and the Continental Tire Sports Car Challenge will run races on Friday. It will be the first time in speedway history that races will take place on the 2.5-mile oval and 2.534-mile Grand Prix road course during the same weekend. The move has been done to counter declining attendance during the Brickyard 400. Race lengths were not announced. Many Sprint Cup drivers are expected to make an appearance in the Rolex Sports Car Series race in preparation for the Sprint Cup race at Watkins Glen two weeks later.[26] The NASCAR Camping World Truck Series race at Lucas Oil Raceway will also be discontinued.

The move of the Nationwide race from Lucas Oil Raceway to the Brickyard has come with much criticism. Lucas Oil Raceway sold out every race in the 28 years it held a Nationwide race while offering exciting short track racing on the track, while many fans consider racing at the Brickyard "boring." [27]

  Other sporting events held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway

Brickyard Crossing Golf.svg
  This logo was used to commemorate the track's centennial celebration from 2009-2011, drawing on elements from 1909, 1933 and 1961.

Since 1977, the city of Indianapolis has hosted a half marathon, which includes one lap around the Speedway. Known as the OneAmerica 500 Festival Mini-Marathon, this event usually starts the official events that occur prior to the Indy 500.

From 1960 to 1968, the Speedway Golf Course, originally built in 1929, hosted a PGA Tour event, the 500 Festival Open Invitation, in conjunction with Indy 500 race week. In 1968, it also held an LPGA event. From 1991 to 1993, the course was demolished and changed from a 27-hole layout (18 holes outside, 9 in the infield) to an 18-hole championship course designed by legendary golf architect Pete Dye. The new course, renamed the Brickyard Crossing Golf Resort features 14 holes outside, and 4 holes in the infield, along with an infield lake. A Champions Tour event, Brickyard Crossing Championship, was hosted there from 1994–1999.[28]

At the 1987 Pan American Games, the speedway hosted opening ceremonies and the speed roller skating competition.[29]

During the three-year Centennial Era, announced on May 23, 2008, special festivities which will include a balloon festival to commemorate the first event, will be held at two of the major races at the speedway, the Indianapolis 500 and the Brickyard 400. In February 2012, the facility will be used to host events during Super Bowl XLVI that will be held in Indianapolis.[30]

Since 2009, the Speedway has hosted United States Auto Club quarter midget racing on an infield oval, called the "Battle at the Brickyard".

  Speed records

  Indianapolis 500

Type Distance Date Driver Time Average speed
Laps Miles
Practice 1 2.5 miles (4.0 km) May 10, 1996 Netherlands Arie Luyendyk 0:00:37.616 239.260 mph (385.052 km/h)
Qualifying 1 2.5 miles (4.0 km) May 12, 1996 Netherlands Arie Luyendyk 0:00:37.895 237.498 mph (382.216 km/h)
Qualifying 4 10 miles (16 km) May 12, 1996 Netherlands Arie Luyendyk 0:02:31.908 236.986 mph (381.392 km/h)
Race 1 2.5 miles (4.0 km) May 26, 1996 United States Eddie Cheever 0:00:38.119 236.103 mph (379.971 km/h)
Race 200 500 miles (800 km) May 27, 1990 Netherlands Arie Luyendyk 2:41:18.404 185.981 mph (299.307 km/h)

  Brickyard 400

Type Distance Date Driver Time Average speed
Qualifying
(1 lap)
2.5 miles (4.0 km) August 7, 2004 United States Casey Mears 0:00:48.311 186.293 mph (299.810 km/h)
Race
(1 lap)
2.5 miles (4.0 km) August 7, 2005 United States Tony Stewart 0:00:50.099 179.641 mph (289.104 km/h)
Race
(160 laps) *
400 miles (640 km)* August 5, 2000 United States Bobby Labonte 2:33:55.979 155.912 mph (250.916 km/h)
* The 2004 race distance was extended by one lap, to 402.5 miles (647.8 km),
due to NASCAR's green-white-checker rule.

  United States Grand Prix

Type Distance Date Driver Time Average speed
Practice*
(1 lap)
2.605 miles (4.192 km) June 19, 2004 Brazil Rubens Barrichello 0:01:09.454 135.025 mph (217.302 km/h)
Qualifying
(1 lap)
2.605 miles (4.192 km) June 19, 2004 Brazil Rubens Barrichello 0:01:10.223 133.546 mph (214.921 km/h)
Race
(1 lap)
2.605 miles (4.192 km) June 20, 2004 Brazil Rubens Barrichello 0:01:10.399 133.207 mph (214.376 km/h)
Race
(73 laps)
190.165 miles (306.041 km) June 19, 2005 Germany Michael Schumacher 1:29:43.181 127.173 mph (204.665 km/h)
* All-time track record, IMS original (2000–2007) road course

  Red Bull Indianapolis GP

Type Distance Date Rider Time Average speed
Practice
(1 lap)
2.621 miles (4.218 km) August 29, 2009 Spain Dani Pedrosa 0:01:40.271 94.101 mph (151.441 km/h)
Qualifying*
(1 lap)
2.621 miles (4.218 km) August 27, 2011 Australia Casey Stoner 0:01:38.850 95.454 mph (153.618 km/h)
Race
(1 lap)
2.621 miles (4.218 km) August 28, 2011
(Lap 20)
Australia Casey Stoner 0:01:39.807 94.538 mph (152.144 km/h)
Race
(28 laps)
73.388 miles (118.107 km) August 28, 2011 Australia Casey Stoner 0:46:52.786 93.927 mph (151.161 km/h)
* All-time track record, IMS reconfigured (2008) road course

Source:[31]

  Race winners

  Oval dimensions

Region Number Distance Width Banking
Long straightaways 2 0.625 miles (1.006 km) 50 feet (15 m)
Short straightaways 2 0.125 miles (0.201 km) 50 feet (15 m)
Turns 4 0.250 miles (0.402 km) 60 feet (18 m) 9°12'
Total/Average   2.5 miles (4.0 km) 54 feet (16 m) 3°3'

  See also

  References

  1. ^ a b Study puts Indy's capacity at 257,325 – USA Today – 5/27/2004
  2. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/natreg/docs/All_Data.html. 
  3. ^ "Indianapolis Motor Speedway". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1524&ResourceType=District. Retrieved 2009-06-05. 
  4. ^ Charleton, James H. (October 1985). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory—Nomination Form: Indianapolis Motor Speedway". National Park Service. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/75000044.pdf.  and Accompanying two photos from 1985
  5. ^ "100 000+ Stadiums". World Stadiums. http://www.worldstadiums.com/stadium_menu/stadium_list/100000.shtml. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c d Scott, D. Bruce; INDY: Racing Before the 500; Indiana Reflections; 2005; ISBN 0-9766149-0-1.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "FEATURES: Indianapolis Motor Speedway: Birthplace of Speed". automobilemag.com. May 2009. http://www.automobilemag.com/features/racing/0906_indianapolis_motor_speedway_birthplace_of_speed/index.html. Retrieved 24 November 2010. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Indy 500: Indianapolis Motor Speedway History". Indystar.com. May 14, 2010. http://www.indystar.com/article/99999999/SPORTS0107/90429082/Indy-500-Indianapolis-Motor-Speedway-history. 
  9. ^ "Fun Facts". indianapolismotorspeedway. http://www.indianapolismotorspeedway.com/indy500/history/35357-Fun-Facts/. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  10. ^ Dill, Mark; "A Forgotten Classic;" 2006 Allstate 400 at the Brickyard Official Program; Indianapolis Motor Speedway; 2006.
  11. ^ "1916 AAA National Championship Trail". Champcarstats.com. http://www.champcarstats.com/year/1916.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  12. ^ "Compete channel". Motorsport.com. http://www.motorsport.com/stats/champ/byyear.asp?Y=1916. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  13. ^ Kettlewell, Mike. "Indianapolis: The Richest Race in the World", in Northey, Tom, ed. World of Automobiles (London: Orbis, 1974), Volume 9, p.1014.
  14. ^ a b Kettlewell, p.1014.
  15. ^ a b c Kettlewell, p.1015.
  16. ^ a b c d e Kettlewell, Mike. "Indianapolis: The Richest Race in the World", in Northey, Tom, ed. World of Automobiles (London: Orbis, 1974), Volume 9, p.1015.
  17. ^ "FAQs about the Indianapolis Motor Speedway". Indianapolismotorspeedway. http://www.indianapolismotorspeedway.com/about/35550-FAQ/. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  18. ^ Kallmann, Dave (2001-09-29). "Drivers , organizers showing no fear - All involved feel safe after Sept . 11 attacks" (NewsBank). Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (Wisconsin: Journal Sentinel Inc): p. 10. http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/InfoWeb?p_product=AWNB&p_theme=aggregated5&p_action=doc&p_docid=0EED8C2CCA2D7E01&p_docnum=1&p_queryname=2. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  19. ^ a b c "United States Grand Prix history". formula1.com. http://www.formula1.com/news/features/2004/6/1739.html. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  20. ^ "Ecclestone digs in over US deal". BBC Sport. June 23, 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/motorsport/formula_one/5108704.stm. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  21. ^ Miersma, Seyth (March 7, 2008). "Formula One could Return to Indy by 2009". Next Autos. http://eurosport.yahoo.com/07032008/58/indy-return-2009.html. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  22. ^ "Indy remains 'open' to F1 return". itv-f1.com. April 10, 2008. http://www.itv-f1.com/news_article.aspx?id=42292. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  23. ^ "New IMS motorcycle circuit". racecar.com. July 17, 2007. http://www.racecar.com/Motorsport/News/New-IMS-motorcycle-circuit-../18003.htm. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  24. ^ "MotoGP : 2008 Indianapolis - Repsol Honda - Sunday report". f1sa.com. September 15, 2008. http://www.f1sa.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6715&Itemid=219. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  25. ^ "Rolex Series to Hold Special Test at Indianapolis Motor Speedway". Grand-am.com. 2009-08-13. http://www.grand-am.com/news/index.cfm?cid=23452. Retrieved 2009-11-21. 
  26. ^ "Indianapolis Motor Speedway Added To 2012 GRAND-AM Schedule". July 6, 2011. http://www.grand-am.com/news/index.cfm?series=r&cid=43869. Retrieved 9 July 2011. 
  27. ^ "NASCAR Making Mistake By Moving Nationwide Race To Indianapolis Motor Speedway". July 5, 2011. http://www.sbnation.com/nascar/2011/7/5/2259246/nascar-nationwide-series-indianapolis-motor-speedway-brickyard-lucas-oil-raceway-orp-irp-2012. Retrieved 9 July 2011. 
  28. ^ "Brickyard Crossing Information". Brickyardcrossing.com. http://www.brickyardcrossing.com/content/General/Brickyard_Crossing_Information/129. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  29. ^ The Games of August: Official Commemorative Book. Indianapolis: Showmasters. 1987. ISBN 978-0-9619676-0-4. 
  30. ^ "NFL Names Indianapolis Site of Super Bowl XLVI". Brandweek. May 20, 2008. http://www.brandweek.com/bw/news/sportsent/article_display.jsp?vnu_content_id=1003805779. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 
  31. ^ "Race Results at Indianapolis Motor Speedway". racingreference.info. http://www.racing-reference.info/tracks/Indianapolis_Motor_Speedway. Retrieved 23 November 2010. 

  External links

   
               

 

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