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definición - Jodhpurs

jodhpur (n.)

1.a short riding boot that fastens with a buckle at the side

jodhpurs (n.)

1.flared trousers ending at the calves; worn with riding boots

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definición de Jodhpurs (Wikipedia)

sinónimos - Jodhpurs

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Wikipedia

Jodhpur

                   
Jodhpur
—  city  —
Sun City, Blue city
Jodhpur is located in Rajasthan
Jodhpur
Coordinates: 26°17′N 73°01′E / 26.28°N 73.02°E / 26.28; 73.02Coordinates: 26°17′N 73°01′E / 26.28°N 73.02°E / 26.28; 73.02
Country India
State Rajasthan
District Jodhpur[1]
Government
 • Governing body Municipal corporation of Jodhpur
 • Mayor Mr. Rameshwar Dadhich
Elevation 231 m (758 ft)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Total 1,210,000
 • Density 11,210/km2 (29,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Hindi
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 342005
Vehicle registration RJ 19

Jodhpur (/ˈɒdpʊər/ About this sound Jodhpur.ogg ) is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan. It is located 335 kilometres (208 mi) west from the state capital, Jaipur and 200 kilometres (124 mi) from the city of Ajmer. It was formerly the seat of a princely state of the same name, the capital of the kingdom known as Marwar. Jodhpur is a popular tourist destination, featuring many palaces, forts and temples, set in the stark landscape of the Thar desert.

The city is known as the "Sun City" for the bright, sunny weather it enjoys all year. It is also referred to as the "Blue City" due to the blue-painted houses around the Mehrangarh Fort. The old city circles the fort and is bounded by a wall with several gates. However, the city has expanded greatly outside the wall over the past several decades. Jodhpur lies near the geographic centre of Rajasthan state, which makes it a convenient base for travel in a region much frequented by tourists.

Contents

  History

  Jodhpur Panorama, seen from the Mehrangarh Fort.

According to Rajasthan district Gazetteers of Jodhpur and the Hindu epic Ramayana (composed up to 4th century AD), Abhiras were the original inhabitants of Jodhpur and later Aryans spread to this region.[3][4]

Jodhpur was also part of the Gurjara - Pratihara empire and until 1100 CE was ruled by a powerful Bargujar King. Jodhpur was founded in 1459 by Rao Jodha, a Rajput chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory and thus founded a state which came to be known as Marwar. As Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore, that town initially served as the capital of this state; however, Jodhpur soon took over that role, even during the lifetime of Jodha. The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat. This enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, copper, silk, sandals, date palms and coffee.

Early in its history, the state became a fief under the Mughal Empire, owing fealty to them while enjoying some internal autonomy. During this period, the state furnished the Mughals with several notable generals such as Maharaja Jaswant Singh. Jodhpur and its people benefited from this exposure to the wider world: new styles of art and architecture made their appearance and opportunities opened up for local tradesmen to make their mark across northern India.

  View of the Rajasthan High Court, Sardar museum in Umaid Park and upper right is Jodhpur fort in 1960.

Aurangzeb briefly sequestrated the state (c.1679) on the pretext of a minority, but the rightful ruler Maharaja Ajit Singh was restored to the throne by Veer Durgadas Rathore after Aurangzeb died in 1707 and a great struggle of 30 years. The Mughal empire declined gradually after 1707, but the Jodhpur court was beset by intrigue; rather than benefiting from circumstances, Marwar descended into strife and invited the intervention of the Marathas, who soon supplanted the Mughals as overlords of the region. This did not make for stability or peace, however; 50 years of wars and treaties dissipated the wealth of the state, which sought and gratefully entered into subsidiary alliance with the British in 1818.

During the British Raj, the state of Jodhpur had the largest land area of any in Rajputana. Jodhpur prospered under the peace and stability that were a hallmark of this era.The land area of the state was 23,543 sq mi (60,980 km2) its population in 1901 was 44,73,759. It enjoyed an estimated revenue of £35,29,000/. Its merchants, the Marwaris, flourished without let or limit and came to occupy a position of dominance in trade across India. In 1947, when India became independent, the state merged into the union of India and Jodhpur became the second city of Rajasthan.

Oswal Jains were mainly concentrated in Gorwar Region which was again ruled by Maharaja of Jodhpur . And Oswal jains also played main role in strengthening foundation of Jodhpur by donating mass wealth, gems to Maharaja of Jodhpur & in turn Maharaja of Jodhpur used to honour these wealthy Oswal Jain Merchants as Nagar Seth or various other honourable titles.

At the time of partition, ruler of Jodhpur Hanwant Singh did not want to join India, but finally due to the effective persuasion Maharana of Mewar and Sardar Vallab Patel the then Home Minister at centre princely state of Jodhpur was included in Indian Republic. Later after State Reorganization Act, 1956 it was made part of the state of Rajasthan.

[[File:Blue City , Jodhpur.jpg|x148px|alt=The Blue City of Jodphur at dusk.]]
  Panorama of Jodhpur from 2010-10-15
Panorama view of Jodhpur, with the Mehrangarh Fort to the right, and the city centre below.
  Panorama of Jodhpur from 2011-09-27

  Demographics

As per provisional reports of Census India,[5] population of Jodhpur is 1,033,918 in 2011; of which male and female nearly constitute 52.62 percent and 47.38 percent respectively. Average literacy rate of Jodhpur city is 81.56 percent of which male and female literacy was 88.42 and 73.93 percent respectively. Total children under 6 years of age constitute nearly 12.24 percent of city population. Jodhpur city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Jodhpur Urban Agglomeration. The Jodhpur Urban/Metropolitan area include Jodhpur, Kuri Bhagtasani, Mandor Ind. Area, Nandri, Pal Village and Sangariya. Its Urban/Metropolitan population is 1,137,815 of which 599,332 are males and 538,483 are females.

  Climate

The climate of Jodhpur is generally hot and semi-arid, but with a rainy season from late June to September (Köppen BWhw). Although the average rainfall is around 450 millimetres (18 in), it is extraordinarily variable. In the famine year of 1899, Jodhpur received only 24 millimetres (0.94 in), but in the flood year 1917 it received as much as 1,178 millimetres (46.4 in).

Temperatures are extreme throughout the period from March to October, except when monsoonal rain produces thick clouds to lower it slightly. In the months of April, May and June, high temperatures routinely exceed 40 degrees Celsius. During the monsoon season, average temperatures decrease slightly. However, the city's generally low humidity rises and this adds to the normal discomfort from the heat.

Climate data for Jodhpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 25
(77)
27.8
(82.0)
33.4
(92.1)
38.4
(101.1)
41.4
(106.5)
40.1
(104.2)
36
(97)
33.7
(92.7)
35
(95)
36
(97)
31.5
(88.7)
26.8
(80.2)
33.8
(92.8)
Average low °C (°F) 9.6
(49.3)
11.8
(53.2)
17.2
(63.0)
22.7
(72.9)
26.8
(80.2)
28.2
(82.8)
26.8
(80.2)
25.3
(77.5)
24.1
(75.4)
19.9
(67.8)
14.5
(58.1)
10.8
(51.4)
19.81
(67.65)
Precipitation mm (inches) 10.2
(0.402)
4.8
(0.189)
3.9
(0.154)
5.1
(0.201)
66.1
(2.602)
35.1
(1.382)
120.8
(4.756)
128.9
(5.075)
57.6
(2.268)
8.1
(0.319)
2.6
(0.102)
1.6
(0.063)
444.8
(17.512)
Source: Jodhpur Climate

  Economy

  Industrial plant near Jodhpur, Rajasthan.

The Handicrafts industry has in recent years eclipsed all other industries in the city. By some estimates, the furniture export segment is a $200 million industry, directly or indirectly employing as many as 200,000 people. Other items manufactured include textiles, metal utensils, bicycles, ink and sporting goods. A flourishing cottage industry exists for the manufacture of such items as glass bangles, cutlery, carpets and marble products.

After handicrafts, tourism is the second largest industry of Jodhpur. Crops grown in the district include wheat and the famous Mathania red chillies. Gypsum and salt are mined. The city serves as an important marketplace for wool and agricultural products. The Indian Air Force, Indian Army and Border Security Force maintain training centers at Jodhpur.

The administration of Jodhpur is consisting of a District Collector, followed by 4 Additional District Magistrates (I,II, Land Conversion and City ADM). Presently, the Collector and District Magistrate is Mr. Siddharth Mahajan (I.A.S).The city is also under Police Commissioner system,with "MR.Bhupinder Kumar Dak (I.P.S)" as Police commissioner of the city.

  Elected representatives

The present Member of Parliament from Jodhpur is Chandresh Kumari of Congress, who is the sister of Gaj Singh, the former Maharaja of Jodhpur. The current MLAs from the 3 constituencies of Jodhpur are from Jodhpur City: Shri Kailash Bhansali, Chartered Accountant; from Sardarpura: Shri Ashok Gehlot, Chief Minister of Rajasthan; from Soorsagar: Smt. Suryakanta Vyas

  Culture

  Mehrangarh Fort
  Umaid Bhavan Palace
  The Jaswant Thada mausoleum
A picturesque view of Kaylana Lake, Jodhpur.
  Kaylana

  Tourism

Jodhpur's attractions include Mehrangarh Fort, Umaid Bhawan Palace, Jaswant Thada, and Ghanta Ghar (Clock Tower). Tourists can make excursions to Mandore, Kaylana Lake and Garden, Balsamand lake, Sardar Samand lake and palace, Masooria Hill, Veer Durgadas Smarak(monument, park and museum), Dhawa (Dholi) forest area, Khichan, Osian, Nakoda ji.

  Fairs and festivals

A glimpse of Rajasthan folk dances.
  Folk dance of Rajasthan.

  Cuisine

A number of Indian delicacies have originated in Jodhpur. To name a few, the Makhaniya Lassi, Mawa Kachori, Pyaaj Kachori, Hot & Spicy Mirchibada (A preparation made with potato, onion, chilli and gramflour), Dal Bati Churma, Panchkuta, Lapsi (a special kind of dessert made with wheat, Jaggery, and ghee), Kachar mircha curry (made with chilli and kachar, a special type of vegetable grown in desert area) and Kadhi (made with gramflour, curd and chilli) with Baajre ka sogra (a sweet preparation of pearl millet and jaggery). Jodhpur is known for its sweets ranging from traditional "Makhanbada", "Mawa Kachori" to Bengali "Roshogollas","Ras madhuri".

  Education

  Indian Institute of Technology, Rajasthan

Jodhpur is fast becoming a major education hub for higher studies in India.

Major Institutions are -

- Indian Institute of Technology Rajasthan (A premier technical institute of India)

- NLU (National Law University, Jodhpur),

- JNU (Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur),

- NIFT National Institute of Fashion Technology,

- Ayurveda University (Second University of its kind in India)

- JNVU (Jai Narayan Vyas University) (NAAC accredited "A" Grade University)

- MBM Engineering College, which falls under JNVU university, is the world's only institute which has its own mines.

- Dr. S.N Medical College and group of Hospitals - S.L.B.S Engineering College

- Jodhpur Engineering College & Research Centre

- Jodhpur Institute of Engineering & Technology.

- Marwar Engineering College

- Vyas Institute Of Higher education

Also, a new campus of All India Institute of Medical Sciences is going to be established in CAZRI(Central Arid Zone Research Institute)campus.

The other educational institutions include ICMT, Lachoo Memorial College, Somani College,VIET, SLBS, MAYURAKSHI etc.

Jodhpur is also India's largest hub for preparation of CA entrance.

  Judiciary

Rajasthan High Court (Marwadi: राजस्थान मोटी कचेरी, Hindi: राजस्थान उच्च न्यायालय) is the High Court of the state of Rajasthan. It was established on 21 June 1949 under the Rajasthan High Court Ordinance, 1949.

The seat of the court is at Jodhpur. The court has a sanctioned judge strength of 40. View of the Rajasthan High Court, Sardar museum in Umaid Park and upper right is Jodhpur fort in 1960.

The High Court of Rajasthan was founded in 1949 at Jodhpur, and was inaugurated by the Rajpramukh, Maharaja Sawai Man Singh on 29 August 1949. The first Chief Justice was Kamala Kant Verma. A bench was formed at Jaipur which was dissolved in 1958 and was again formed on 31 January 1977. Currently the sanctioned strength of the judges is 40 and actual strength is 29.

  Transportation

The city is very well connected with Road, Rail and Air. It is mostly connected with railways to major Indian cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Trivandrum, Pune, Kota, Kanpur, Bareilly, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Indore, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Guwahati, Nagpur, Lucknow and Jaipur.The railway station is also the originating point for various trains like Jodhpur - Indore Express, Jodhpur - Bhopal Express, Jodhpur - Puri Express, Mandore Express, Suryanagri Superfast Express etc.

Jodhpur Airport is one of the prominent airports of western India. It was primarily constructed as an Air Force base because of its important strategic location (Jodhpur Airport played the crucial role during Indo-Pak wars in 1965, 1971). It is the most powerful air base in South Asia.

  Airlines and destinations

Airlines Destinations
Indian Airlines Delhi, Mumbai, Udaipur, Aurangabad
Jet Airways Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bangalore

  Further reading

  • Jodhpur, Published by [s.l.], 1933.
  • Maharaja of Marwar 1973.
  • Marwar under Jaswant Singh, (1658-1678): Jodhpur hukumat ri bahi, by Satish Chandra, Raghubir Sinh, Ghanshyam Dattan Singh of Jodhpur and His Times (1803-1843 A.D.), by padmaja Sharma. Published by Shiva Lal Agarwala, 1972.
  • The Administration of Jodhpur State, 1800-1947 A.D., by Nirmala M. Upadhyaya. International Publishers, Sharma. Published by Meenakshi Prakashan, 1976.
  • The History of Rajputana-Vol.IV, PartII.The History of the Jodhpur State, Part II,Veer Durgadas. 1941, Dr.Gaurishankar Hirachand Ojha.
  • Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaisalmer: Desert Kingdoms, by Kishore Singh, Karoki Lewis. Lustre Press Ltd. 1992.
  • The House of Marwar: The Story of Jodhpur, by Dhananajaya Singh. Lotus Collection, Roli Books, 1994. ISBN 81-7436-002-6.
  • Modern Indian Kingship: Tradition, Legitimacy & Power in Jodhpur, by Marzia Balzani. Published by James Currey Limited, 2003. ISBN 0-85255-931-3.
  • Rathod Durgadas by Pt.Bishweshharnath Reu, 1948, Archaeological Department, Jodhpur.
  • Veer Durgadas Rathor by Dr.L.S.Rathore, Thar Bliss Publisher, Jodhpur, 1987.
  • Jodhpur and the Later Mughals, AD 1707-1752, by R. S. Sangwan. Published by Pragati Publications, 2006.

  See also

  References

  External links

   
               

Jodhpurs

                   
  A horse show competitor wearing jodhpurs

Jodhpurs in their modern form are tight-fitting trousers that reach to the ankle, where they end in a snug cuff, and are worn primarily for horse riding. The term is also used incorrectly as slang for a type of short riding boot, also called a paddock boot or a jodhpur boot, because they are worn with jodhpurs. Originally, jodhpurs were snug-fitting only from just below the knee to the ankle and were flared at the hip; modern stretch fabrics have allowed jodhpurs to remove the flare and yet remain supportive and flexible.[1]

Contents

  History

  Marwari horse in Rajasthan. Note the traditional long riding trousers, tight around the calf, reaching to Mojari slippers.

Jodhpurs originally were long pants, reaching to the ankle, snug from the calf to the ankle, with reinforced fabric protecting the inner calf and knee from rubbing. The thighs and hips were flared, a traditional oriental style possibly to help with bodily cooling in a hot climate,[citation needed] but which, in an era before the invention of stretch fabrics, also allowed free movement of the hip and thigh while riding.

They originate from an ancient style of Indian trouser called the Churidar, which is tight around the calf and baggy at the hips, still worn at traditional Jodhpury weddings.[2] This is a special traditional style of clothing in Northern India, especially in what is today the modern state of Rajasthan, which has its capital at the city of Jaipur. Sir Pratap Singh, a younger son of the Maharaja of Jodhpur, popularised in England the style of riding-trousers worn in Jodhpur, a design that he apparently improved and perfected by himself and first tailored in India about 1890.[3][4]

Singh was an avid polo player, and when he visited Queen Victoria in England during her Diamond Jubilee celebrations of 1897, bringing with him his entire polo team, they caused a sensation among the fashionable circles of the United Kingdom, with their reputation enhanced by the fact that they won many polo matches.[5] His jodhpur style with flared thigh and hip was rapidly taken up by the British polo playing community, who adapted it to existing designs of English breeches that ended at mid-calf, worn with tall riding boots.[citation needed] Thus the full-legged design of the true Jodhpur was not adopted as British polo apparel, and all early photographs of European polo teams show the use of tall boots. Though the term "jodhpurs" was applied colloquially to this style of breeches, they were not true jodhpurs and are more accurately termed "flared-hip breeches". This British version was soon being produced by Savile Row tailors in London. The use of the Indian-style, ankle-length Jodhpurs avoided the need for tall, expensive riding boots, as the calf of the leg was protected by the reinforced design and snug lower fit of the longer trouser leg which kept the rider's calf from rubbing against a horse's sides and against the stirrup leathers.

  Use

  A woman wearing jodhpurs in the 1920s. As women stopped riding sidesaddle, they adopted the use of breeches similar to those worn by men.

  Riding

Special adaptations for riding include a pattern cut with the leg seams on the outside of the leg; a patch on the inside of the knee, sometimes of a hard-wearing material such as leather; and in some cases similar leather or leather-like panel on the seat that helps the rider stay still in the saddle. Classic jodhpurs are beige or white, but for working purposes come in a variety of colours.[1] They are particularly well-suited for fast-growing children as shorter paddock boots cost less than tall boots to replace as a child's feet grow.

  Jodhpur boots, also called paddock boots, are worn with jodhpurs, but also may be worn with breeches if half-chaps are added which provide the functionality and look of a tall riding boot

The word "jodhpurs" is often used interchangeably with riding breeches, though this is technically incorrect, as breeches are riding apparel that come down to only about mid-calf, designed to be worn with long stockings and tall boots. Jodhpurs are ankle length and worn with short, ankle-high Jodhpur boots, also known as Paddock Boots, sometimes with knee-length half-chaps or leggings.[1]

  Occupational uniform

Jodhpurs are sometimes worn as fashion clothing, not only for riding. In popular culture, jodhpur-style breeches worn with tall boots became particularly associated with military staff officers who wore uniforms based on riding apparel, often derived from the cavalry tradition from which many nations historically drew their corps of top commanders. The style thus came to be associated with authority figures in general and was copied by certain Hollywood movie directors. Flared-hip breeches formed part of the military uniform of staff officers in Nazi Germany and many Soviet Bloc countries, including the former USSR and East Germany,[citation needed] although the motor-car had by then long replaced the officer's horse. They also were adopted as the uniform for some forces of motorcycle police.[citation needed] Early 20th century African big game hunters are also associated with the look, due in part to early traditions of riding on horseback in search of quarry.

  Fashion

Ladies began wearing jodhpurs during the 1920s, as they shifted away from riding horses sidesaddle. One of the first high-profile women to adopt the wearing of jodhpurs was Coco Chanel. She was inspired to copy the breeches as worn by a friend's groom.[6]

As part of the 20th century trend of crossover fashions moving from sportswear to streetwear, various designers have incorporated equestrian styles into their clothing, including jodhpurs. Ralph Lauren is the most well-known of these designers, as equestrian styles and motifs are the basis of the Ralph Lauren Polo line. (Polo/Ralph Lauren presented "Man and the Horse", an exhibit of riding clothing and accoutrements from three centuries at the Metropolitan Museum of New York Costume Institute in 1984, curated by Diana Vreeland.)[7]

  Kentucky jodhpurs

  A rider wearing Kentucky Jodhpurs

Kentucky Jodhpurs are full-length riding pants used exclusively in Saddle seat riding. Like Hunt Seat jodhpurs, they are close-fitting from waist to ankle, but differ in that they are noticeably longer, ending with a flared bell bottom that fits over the jodhpur boot, usually extending below the heel of the boot in back, and covering the arch of the foot (but not the toe) in front. The overall look gives the impression of a rider with a long leg and heel lower than the toe, a desired equitation standard. Like the hunt seat jodhpur, they have elastic straps that run under the boot to help hold the pant leg in place.[1] Saddle seat riders, whose riding clothing styles derived from men's business suits, wear Kentucky Jodhpurs in dark colors, usually black, navy blue, or a shade that matches the riding coat.[8]

  References

  1. ^ a b c d Price, Steven D. (ed.) The Whole Horse Catalog: Revised and Updated New York:Fireside 1998 ISBN 0-684-83995-4 p. 215
  2. ^ http://www.fashiontrendsindia.com
  3. ^ http://www.rathore.com/JodhpurPants.htm
  4. ^ Photographs exist of Sir Pratap Singh mounted on a horse, apparently in England, wearing his tight-calfed riding trousers with traditional Indian riding footwear rather than tall boots, dated 1917 & 1918. [1][2] Images, Hulton Archives: 7 March 1917, Sir Pratap Singh on Horseback, Editorial Image #3096959; & gettyimages.co.uk image # 104416011, 1 Jan 1918
  5. ^ http://rajasthantravelguide.com/activities/polo.html
  6. ^ Goodman, Wendy (26 November 1984). "New York Magazine". p. 72. 
  7. ^ Goodman, Wendy (26 November 1984). "New York Magazine". p. 67. 
  8. ^ Crabtree, Helen K. Saddle Seat Equitation: The Definitive Guide Revised Edition New York:Doubleday 1982 ISBN 0-385-17217-6 p. 92-100
   
               

 

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