Military of France
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|French Armed Forces|
Coat of Arms of the French Republic (unofficial)
|Service branches||Armée de Terre|
Armée de l'Air
|Commander-in-Chief||President Nicolas Sarkozy|
|Minister of Defence||Hervé Morin|
|Chief of staff||Général d'armée Jean-Louis Georgelin|
|Military age||17 years of age with consent for voluntary military service (2001)|
|13,676,509 (2005 est.), age 15–49|
|11,262,661 (2005 est.), age 15–49|
|389,204 (2005 est.)|
|Active personnel||259,050 (2006) ranked 14th|
|Reserve personnel||419,000 (2006)|
|Deployed personnel||35,000 (2006 est.)|
|Budget||€42.52 billion (US$62.7 billion) (2010)|
(this figure excludes the Gendarmerie)
|Percent of GDP||2.6% (2005)|
|History||Military History of France|
La Grande Armée
The Military of France encompasses an army, a navy, an air force and a gendarmerie. The President of the Republic heads the armed forces, with the title of "chef des armées" - "chief of the military forces". The President is the supreme authority for military matters and is the sole official who can order a nuclear strike. The French military has, as some of its primary objectives, the defence of national territory, the protection of French interests abroad, and the maintenance of global stability.
With a reported personnel strength of 779,450 in 2006 (259,050 regular force, 419,000 regular reserve, and 101,400 law enforcement Gendarmerie), the French Armed Forces constitutes the largest military in the European Union and the 23rd largest in the world by number of troops. The French Armed Forces however have the 3rd highest expenditure of any military in the world, as well as the 3rd largest nuclear force in the world, only behind the United States and Russia. The French military is also deemed to have the third highest power projection capability in the world, behind the United States and the United Kingdom.
French military doctrine is based on the concepts of national independence, nuclear deterrence (see Force de frappe), and military self-sufficiency. France is a charter member of NATO, and has worked actively with its allies to adapt NATO — internally and externally — to the post-Cold War environment. In December 1995, France announced that it would increase its participation in NATO's military wing, including the Military Committee (France withdrew from NATO's military bodies in 1966 whilst remaining full participants in the Organisation's political Councils). France remains a firm supporter of the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe and other cooperative efforts. Paris hosted the May 1997 NATO-Russia Summit which sought the signing of the Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security.
Outside of NATO, France has actively and heavily participated in both coalition and unilateral peacekeeping efforts in Africa, the Middle East, and the Balkans, frequently taking a lead role in these operations. France has undertaken a major restructuring to develop a professional military that will be smaller, more rapidly deployable, and better tailored for operations outside of mainland France. Key elements of the restructuring include: reducing personnel, bases and headquarters, and rationalistion of equipment and the armaments industry.
Since the end of the Cold War, France has placed a high priority on arms control and non-proliferation. French Nuclear testing in the Pacific, and the Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior strained French relations with its Allies, South Pacific states (namely New Zealand), and world opinion. France agreed to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1992 and supported its indefinite extension in 1995. After conducting a controversial final series of six nuclear tests on Mururoa in the South Pacific, the French signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty in 1996. Since then, France has implemented a moratorium on the production, export, and use of anti-personnel landmines and supports negotiations leading toward a universal ban. The French are key players in the adaptation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe to the new strategic environment.
France remains an active participant in: the major programs to restrict the transfer of technologies that could lead to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: the Nuclear Suppliers Group, the Australia Group (for chemical and biological weapons), and the Missile Technology Control Regime. France has also signed and ratified the Chemical Weapons Convention.
On 31 July 2007, President Nicolas Sarkozy ordered M. Jean-Claude Mallet, a member of the Council of State, to head up a thirty-five member commission charged with a wide-ranging review of French defence. The commission issued its White Paper in early 2008.. Acting upon its recommendations, President Sarkozy began making radical changes in French defence policy and structures starting in the summer of 2008. In keeping with post-Cold War changes in European politics and power structures, the French military's traditional focus on territorial defence will be redirected to meet the challenges of a global threat environment. Under the reorganisation, the identification and destruction of terrorist networks both in metropolitan France and in francophone Africa will be the primary task of the French military. Redundant military bases will be closed and new weapons systems projects put on hold to finance the restructuring and global deployment of intervention forces. In a historic change, Sarkozy furthermore has declared that France "will now participate fully in NATO," four decades after former French president General Charles de Gaulle withdrew from the alliance's command structure and ordered American troops off French soil.
There are currently 36,000 French troops deployed in foreign territories - such operations are known as "OPEX" for Opérations Extérieures ("External Operations").
Along with the United States and other countries, France provides troops for the United Nations force stationed in Haiti following the 2004 Haiti rebellion. France has sent troops, especially special forces, into Afghanistan to help the United States and NATO forces fight the remains of the Taliban and Al Qaeda. In Opération Licorne a force of a few thousand French soldiers is stationed in Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) on a UN peacekeeping mission. These troops were initially sent under the terms of a mutual protection pact between France and the Côte d'Ivoire, but the mission has since evolved into the current UN peacekeeping operation. The French Armed Forces have also played a leading role in the ongoing UN peacekeeping mission along the Lebanon-Israel border as part of the cease-fire agreement that brought the 2006 Lebanon War to an end. Currently, France has 2,000 army personnel deployed along the border, including infantry, armour, artillery and air defence. There are also naval and air personnel deployed offshore.
The French Joint Force and Training Headquarters (L'Etat-Major Interarmees de Force et d'Entrainment) at Air Base 110 near Creil maintains the ability to command a medium or large-scale international operation, and runs exercises .
[[File:Solenzara.jpg|thumb|right|240px|????[[File:Duquesne 4.jpg|thumb|right|240px|?????]]The titular head of the French armed forces is the President of the Republic, in his role as Chef des Armées — the President is thus Commander-in-Chief of French forces. However, the Constitution puts civil and military government forces at the disposal of the government (the executive cabinet of ministers, who are not necessarily of the same political side as the president). The Minister of Defence (as of 2007, Hervé Morin) oversees the military's funding, procurement and operations.
- Army (Armée de Terre), including:
- Infantry (Infanterie)
- Chasseurs Alpins (mountain infantry)
- Armoured Cavalry (Arme Blindée Cavalerie)
- Artillery (Artillerie)
- Foreign Legion (infantry, cavalry, engineers)
- Troupes de marine (Marines) (infantry, cavalry, paratroopers, artillery)
- Army Light Aviation (Aviation Légére de l'Armée de Terre - ALAT)
- Engineers (Génie) including the Paris Fire Brigade
- Signals (Transmissions)
- Transport and logistics (Train)
- Supply (Matériel)
- Infantry (Infanterie)
- Navy (Marine Nationale), including:
- Air Force (Armée de l'Air) including
- Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie Nationale), a military police force which serves for the most part as a rural and general purpose police force. In 2009 this force will quit the ministry of defence to fully join the ministry of interior (police).
It also include the following services:
- SGA (Eng: Secretariat general de l'administration = administration and construction).
- Délégation Générale pour l'Armement (Eng: General Weaponry Delegation) is the French defence procurement agency (a mixed military/civilian service) that includes the former Direction des Constructions Navales. It also manages a number of engineering schools: the École Polytechnique, École Nationale Supérieure de Techniques Avancées, SUPAERO, the ENSICA and the ENSIETA;
- Health service of the armies (Eng: Service de Santé des Armées) operates a number of military hospitals.
- Fuel Services (Eng: Service des Essences des Armées = Army Fuels Service).
The total number of military personnel is approximately 359,000, although approximately 100,000 of these are in the Gendarmerie and, thus, used in everyday law enforcement operations within France (elements of the Gendarmerie are, however, present in all French external operations, providing specialised law enforcement troops/military police).
Historically, France relied a great deal on conscription to provide manpower for its military, in addition to a minority of professional career soldiers. Following the Algerian War, the use of non-volunteer draftees in foreign operations was ended; if their unit was called up for duty in war zones, draftees were offered the choice between requesting a transfer to another unit or volunteering for the active mission. In 1996, President Jacques Chirac's government announced the end of conscription and in 2001, conscription formally was ended. Young people must still, however, register for possible conscription (should the situation call for it). A recent change is that women must now register as well.
- The standard assault rifle is the FAMAS.
- The standard pistol is the PAMAS, a version of the Beretta 92 produced under licence.
- GIAT Industries provides heavy armoured vehicles, while Dassault Aviation is the source of military aircraft.
- ^ Budget of the Ministry of Defense in 2010: €39.18 bn for the Defense mission proper + €3.336 bn for Veterans' Affairs
- ^ "French Military base in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates". Defence Aviation. 2009-05-28. http://www.defenceaviation.com/2009/05/french-military-base-in-abu-dhabi.html. Retrieved 2009-06-02.
- ^ Que dit le Livre blanc sur les accords de défense ?, Ministry of Defence
- ^ "French Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 32)". 2006-07-25. http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/060626_asia_balance_powers.pdf.
- ^ "French Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 112)". 2006-09-27. http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/westmb012302%5B1%5D.pdf.
- ^ "French Paramilitary Forces, Tiscali Encyclopedia". 2006-07-25. http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/countryfacts/france.html.
- ^ Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. "The top 10 military spenders, 2008". http://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2009/05/05A. Retrieved 2009-11-04.
- ^ Official Presidential Website, Letter of Engagement to M. Jean-Claude Mallet, 31 July 2007
- ^ Jim Hoagland, "France's Whirlwind of Change", Real Clear Politics, 18 June 2008
- ^ http://www.defense.gouv.fr/ema/commandement/organismes_et_directions_interarmees/emia_fe/emia_fe