definición de Missoulian (Wikipedia)
|Founded||1870 (as the Missoula and Cedar Creek Pioneer)|
The Missoulian is a daily newspaper printed in Missoula, Montana. Its circulation is 34,855 on Sundays, 30,466 on weekdays. The newspaper is owned by Lee Enterprises. The Missoulian is the 2nd largest published newspaper in Montana, just behind the Billings Gazette. the Missoulian is published throughout the city of Missoula, Montana, and also throughout most of western Montana.
The Missoulian's roots are based in Missoula's first newspaper, the Missoula & Cedar Creek Pioneer, founded in 1870 and was devoted to reporting on the development of Western Montana. In 1873, Judge Frank Woody, who would later become Missoula's first mayor, purchased the paper and changed its name to the Missoulian. The newspaper would offer only a weekend edition until 1891 when new owner A.B. Hammond converted it to a daily newspaper as Missoula's population passed 3,000. In December 1906 Wilhelm's Magazine The Coast described the newspaper as "one of the best papers in the state of Montana and has the credit of being a strong paper in all matters pertaining to public and state affairs. It is large, well edited and a credit to Missoula."
In 1900, Hammond began selling stock in the Missoulian to political rival Joseph M. Dixon who would later become a US Congressman, US Congressman, and the state of Montana's seventh governor. Dixon gained control over the paper in 1907 and brought in Arthur Stone, a former Anaconda Standard reporter and managing editor as well as former Democratic state legislator, as editor. His experience would help modernize the paper and expand its reach. The Republican Daily Missoulian (as it would be called until 1961) was soon rivaled by the Democrat-leaning Missoula Herald published by the Hassler Brothers and its successor the Missoula Sentinel that was purchased in 1912 (one year after its founding) by Richard Kilroy for the purpose of politically wounding Dixon as he ran for re-election in the first year Senators were popularly elected. (*note. Though the 17th Amendment to the Constitution was not ratified until 1913, the Montana legislature provided for the direct election of US Senators in 1911 in anticipation of the amendments ratification.) Dixon would lose the election in a Democratic sweep and would lose the paper for financial reasons five years later.
Montana's press in 1912 was almost entirely under the influence and control of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company, then known as "Amalgamated Copper Company" or, in a nod to its incredible clout in Montana politics and journalism, simply "The Company". The Missoulian was not a "Company paper"; according to Jerre Murphy, a former Amalgamated employee turned muckracker it was the only major newspaper in Montana that was not. After his election defeat Dixon turned the Missoulian against Amalgamated with scathing editorials and "objectionable" news. With Dixon refusing to sell the paper, the Company chose bribery by offering Dixon the Missoula Sentinel that Dixon felt was splitting the city's advertising dollars. Dixon accepted, but only on the condition that he would be "fair" to Amalgamated in the press. Pressure on advertisers for new anti-Dixon competition and Amalgamated itself pulling its advertising dollars as well as having the Milwaukee Road cancel complimentary papers that it had given to passengers, however, forced Dixon to sell. In two newspapermen from the Chicago Journal, Martin Hutchens and Lester L. Jones purchased the Missoulian and was soon part of the "copper press" (i.e. a "Company paper" known for using its pages to promote the Company's views and for suppressing news it didn’t want reported) and would remain as such until Anaconda Copper sold all its Montana newspapers to Lee Enterprises in 1959.
By the late 1950s, the Anaconda Company's newspaper model of toeing the company line and avoiding controversy had left the company's papers self-conscious and defensive to the point that Don Anderson commented in its appraisal of the newspapers that "They even refused to take a stand on the weather." When the papers were finally sold in 1959, only the Billings Gazette and Missoulian were profitable and in growing markets. Ultimately, the financial difficulties of the company's papers around the state may have helped Lee Enterprises, who faced competition from much larger organizations such as the Cowles Media Company and the Ridder Corporation, purchase the newspaper block. Larger publishers were only interested in the two profitable papers while the Anaconda Company insisted on selling the papers as a block with an implicit guarantee that individual papers not be sold off to recoup losses. Also in Lee Enterprises' favor was that Don Anderson, publisher of the Wisconsin State Journal and later president of Lee Newspapers in Montana who in 2007 would have the new University of Montana School of Journalism building named after him, was a Montana native who understood the political climate and had worked with Anaconda Company staff as a young reporter. He and Lee Enterprises' CEO Phillip Adler successfully purchased the papers despite not being the highest bidders with an agreement made in late May. The newspapers each announced the change in ownership with a "hello" on June 2, 1959 stressing that they would be accountable to the public and not their parent company.
The Missoulian began as the weekly Missoula & Cedar Creek Pioneer in 1870 before being renamed The Missoula Pioneer in 1871, but under the Montana Publishing Company. It was rechristened The Pioneer later in 1871 by the Pioneer Publishing Company and then The Montana Pioneer near the end of 1872 by Washington J. McCormick, Sr. before being purchased by Frank Woody and T. M. Chisholm a couple months later and renamed The Weekly Missoulian. This would remain its carnation through 1898.
The Weekly Missoulian continued for a year (Jan. 1899 – Apr. 1900) as The Missoulian (still as a weekly newspaper), published by Bryan Bros. & Hauck. The weekly newspaper was then purchased by the Fruit-Grower Publishing Company and existed as a horticulture and general news publication until the mid 1910s. In 1889 Harrison Spaulding founded The Morning Missoulian as a daily (minus Monday) paper to compliment The Weekly Missoulian. By 1893, this was changed to The Evening Missoulian and then to the Daily Missoulian under the Missoula Publishing Company with Harrison Spaulding as editor. After brief separate ownership, both the daily and weekly Missoulians were reclaimed by the Missoula Publishing Company with The Daily Missoulian lasting until 1961 when it was once again called the Missoulian after being purchased by Lee Enterprises.
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