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definición - Passive–aggressive behavior

definición de Passive–aggressive behavior (Wikipedia)

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Wikipedia

Passive–aggressive behavior

                   

Passive-aggressive behavior is an umbrella term describing certain types of behaviour in interpersonal interactions. It is characterised by an obstructionist or hostile manner that indicates aggression, or, in more general terms, expressing aggression in non-assertive, subtle (i.e. passive or indirect) ways. It can be seen in some cases as a personality trait or disorder marked by a pervasive pattern of negative attitudes and passive, usually disavowed, resistance in interpersonal or occupational situations.

Passive aggressive behavior should not be confused with passive resistance (also called conscientious objection). In conflict theory and Marxist philosophy, passive resistance is a rational response to demands that may simply be disagreed with. Passive-aggressive behavior should also not be confused with covert aggression, which consists of deliberate, active, but carefully veiled hostile acts and is distinctively different in character from the non-assertive style of passive aggression.[1]

Passive aggressive behavior can manifest itself as learned helplessness, procrastination, hostility masquerading as jokes, stubbornness, resentment, sullenness, or deliberate/repeated failure to accomplish requested tasks for which one is (often explicitly) responsible.[2]

Contents

  Signs and symptoms

The book Living with the Passive–Aggressive Man lists 11 observations that may help identify passive–aggressive behavior:[3]

  • Ambiguity or speaking cryptically: a means of creating a feeling of insecurity in others or of disguising one's own insecurities.
  • Intentional Inefficiency: Intentionally being late and forgetting things, another way to exert control or to punish.
  • Convenient forgetfulness: To win any argument with a dishonest denial of actual events.
  • Fear of competition
  • Fear of dependency
  • Fear of intimacy as a means to act out anger: the passive–aggressive often cannot trust. Because of this, they guard themselves against becoming intimately attached to someone.
  • Making chaotic situations
  • Making excuses for non-performance in work teams.
  • Obstructionism
  • Procrastination
  • Sulking
  • Victimization response: instead of recognizing one's own weaknesses, tendency to blame others for own failures.

A passive–aggressive person may not display all of these behaviors, and may have other[clarification needed] non-passive–aggressive traits.

  In the workplace

Passive aggressive behavior is a common response from workers and managers which is particularly noxious to team unity and productivity. In workers, it can lead to sabotage of projects and the creation of a hostile environment. In managers, it can end up stifling teams creativity. De Angelis says "It would actually make perfect sense that those promoted to leadership positions might often be those who on the surface appear to be agreeable, diplomatic and supportive, yet who are actually dishonest, backstabbing saboteurs behind the scenes."[4] - In brief, to respond to this kind of hostile behavior, people need to control performance expectations, parcel out important tasks so there are several responsible people involved, and re-check frequently to see how much delay the passive aggressive worker can generate before the team leader stops him."

  Diagnosis as a personality disorder

  DSM-III Appendix B

Passive–aggressive personality disorder was listed as an Axis II personality disorder in the DSM-III-R, but was moved in the DSM-IV to Appendix B ("Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study") because of controversy and the need for further research on how to also categorize the behaviors in a future edition. As an alternative, the diagnosis personality disorder not otherwise specified may be used instead.

The DSM-IV Appendix B definition is as follows:[5]

  1. A pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by four (or more) of the following:
    1. passively resists fulfilling routine social and occupational tasks
    2. complains of being misunderstood and unappreciated by others
    3. is sullen and argumentative
    4. unreasonably criticizes and scorns authority
    5. expresses envy and resentment toward those apparently more fortunate
    6. voices exaggerated and persistent complaints of personal misfortune
    7. alternates between hostile defiance and contrition
  2. Does not occur exclusively during major depressive episodes and is not better accounted for by dysthymic disorder.

  ICD-10

Passive–aggressive personality disorder
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 F60.8
ICD-9 301.84

The World Health Organization's ICD-10 lists passive–aggressive personality disorder under (F60.8) Other specific personality disorders.

  Millon's subtypes

The psychologist Theodore Millon has proposed four subtypes of 'negativist' ('passive–aggressive').[6] Any individual negativist may exhibit none or one of the following:

  • circuitous negativist – including dependent features
  • abrasive negativist – including sadistic features
  • discontented negativist – including depressive features
  • vacillating negativist – including borderline features

  Causes

Passive–aggressive disorder may stem from a specific childhood stimulus[7] (e.g., alcohol/drug addicted parents) in an environment where it was not safe to express frustration or anger. Families in which the honest expression of feelings is forbidden tend to teach children to repress and deny their feelings and to use other channels to express their frustration.

Children who sugarcoat hostility may have difficulties being assertive. Never developing better coping strategies or skills for self-expression, they can become adults who, beneath a "seductive veneer", "harbor vindictive intent", in the words of a US congressman psychologist and a writer therapist.[8] Alternatively individuals may simply have difficulty being as directly aggressive or assertive as others. Martin Kantor suggests three areas that contribute to passive–aggressive anger in individuals: conflicts about dependency, control, and competition.[9]

  Treatment

Kantor suggests a treatment approach using psychodynamic, supportive, cognitive, behavioral and interpersonal therapeutic methods. These methods apply to both the passive aggressive person and their target victim, according to Kantor, a retired Staff Psychiatrist for the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in New Jersey.[10]

  History

Passive aggressive behavior was first defined clinically by Colonel William Menninger during World War II in the context of men's reaction to military compliance.

Menninger described soldiers who were not openly defiant but expressed their aggressiveness “by passive measures, such as pouting, stubbornness, procrastination, inefficiency, and passive obstructionism” due to what Menninger saw as an "immaturity" and a reaction to "routine military stress".[11]

According to some psychoanalytic views, noncompliance is not indicative of true passive–aggressive behavior, which may instead be defined as the manifestation of emotions that have been repressed based on a self-imposed need for acceptance.

In the first version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-I, in 1952, the passive–aggressive was defined in a narrow way, grouped together with the passive-dependent.

The DSM-III-R stated in 1987 that passive aggressive disorder is typified by among other things "fail[ing] to do the laundry or to stock the kitchen with food because of procrastination and dawdling."[11]

  See also

  References

  1. ^ Simon, George (2010). In Sheep's Clothing: Understanding and Dealing with Manipulative People. Little Rock: Parkhurst Brothers. pp. 21-22. ISBN 978-1-935166-30-6. http://www.pbros.net. 
  2. ^ Wetzler, Scott (1992). Living with the passive–aggressive man. Simon & Schuster. pp. 35–37. http://books.google.com/books?id=JIyyid3xRyEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Living+with+the+Passive-Aggressive+Man&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  3. ^ Wetzler, Scott (1992). Living with the passive–aggressive man. Simon & Schuster. pp. 14–15. http://books.google.com/books?id=JIyyid3xRyEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Living+with+the+Passive-Aggressive+Man&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  4. ^ De Angelis, Paula: Blindsided: Recognizing and Dealing with Passive-Aggressive Leadership in the Workplace, (Kindle Edition - Jun 22,2008)
  5. ^ Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) American Psychiatric Association (2000)
  6. ^ Millon, Theodore, Personality Disorders in Modern Life, 2004
  7. ^ Johnson JG, Cohen P, Brown J, Smailes EM, Bernstein DP (July 1999). "Childhood maltreatment increases risk for personality disorders during early adulthood". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 56 (7): 600–606. DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.56.7.600. PMID 10401504. 
  8. ^ Murphy, Tim and Hoff Oberlin, Loriann (2005). Overcoming passive aggression: how to stop hidden anger from spoiling your relationships, career and happiness. New York: Marlowe & Company. p. 48. ISBN 1-56924-361-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=rT9902F91j4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Overcoming+passive+aggression:+how+to+stop+hidden+anger+from+spoiling+your+relationships,+career+and+happiness&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  9. ^ Kantor, Martin (2002). Passive–aggression: a guide for the therapist, the patient and the victim. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. pp. xvi–xvii. ISBN 0-275-97422-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=ejBShSEt99kC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Passive-aggression:+a+guide+for+the+therapist,+the+patient+and+the+victim&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  10. ^ Kantor, Martin (2002). Passive–aggression: a guide for the therapist, the patient and the victim. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers. p. 115. ISBN 0-275-97422-7. http://books.google.com/books?id=ejBShSEt99kC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Passive-aggression:+a+guide+for+the+therapist,+the+patient+and+the+victim&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved April 27, 2010. 
  11. ^ a b Lane, C. (1 February 2009). "The Surprising History of Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder". Theory & Psychology 19 (1): 55–70. DOI:10.1177/0959354308101419. http://www.christopherlane.org/documents/Lane.PAPDisorder.pdf. 
   
               

 

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