alemán árabe búlgaro checo chino coreano croata danés eslovaco esloveno español estonio farsi finlandés francés griego hebreo hindù húngaro indonesio inglés islandés italiano japonés letón lituano malgache neerlandés noruego polaco portugués rumano ruso serbio sueco tailandès turco vietnamita
alemán árabe búlgaro checo chino coreano croata danés eslovaco esloveno español estonio farsi finlandés francés griego hebreo hindù húngaro indonesio inglés islandés italiano japonés letón lituano malgache neerlandés noruego polaco portugués rumano ruso serbio sueco tailandès turco vietnamita

definición - Uralic_languages

definición de Uralic_languages (Wikipedia)

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Uralic languages

Eastern and Northern Europe, North Asia
Linguistic classification: A number of proposals linking Uralic to other language families have been made, all currently controversial
Proto-language: Proto-Uralic
ISO 639-5: urj
Fenno-Ugrian people.png
The Uralic languages

The Uralic languages play /jʊərˈrælɨk/ (sometimes referred to as Uralian /jʊˈrliən/ languages) constitute a language family of some three dozen[1] languages spoken by approximately 25 million people. The healthiest Uralic languages in terms of the number of native speakers are Hungarian, Finnish, Estonian, Mari and Udmurt. Countries that are home to a significant number of speakers of Uralic languages include Austria, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Hungary, Norway, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden and Ukraine.

The name "Uralic" refers to the suggested Urheimat (original homeland) of the Uralic family, which is often located in the vicinity of the Ural Mountains, as the modern languages are spoken on both sides of this mountain range.

Finno-Ugric is now sometimes used as a synonym for Uralic, though historically Finno-Ugric had been understood to exclude the Samoyedic languages.[2]




In recent times, linguists often place the Urheimat, (German: original homeland), of the Proto-Uralic language in the vicinity of the Volga River, west of the Urals, close to the Urheimat of the Indo-European languages, or to the east and southeast of the Urals. Gy. Laszlo places its origin in the forest zone between the Oka River and central Poland. E.N. Setälä and M. Zsirai place it between the Volga and Kama Rivers. According to E. Itkonen, the ancestral area extended to the Baltic Sea. P. Hajdu has suggested a homeland in western and northwestern Siberia.[3]

  Early attestations

The first mention of a Uralic people is in Tacitus's Germania,[4] mentioning the Fenni (usually interpreted as referring to the Sami) and two other possibly Uralic tribes living in the farthest reaches of Scandinavia. In the late 15th century, European scholars noted the resemblance of the names Hungaria and Yugria, the names of settlements east of the Ural. They assumed a connection, but did not seek linguistic evidence.

  Uralic studies

In 1671, Swedish scholar Georg Stiernhielm commented on the similarities of Lapp, Estonian and Finnish, and also on a few similar words between Finnish and Hungarian, while the German scholar Martin Vogel tried to establish a relationship between Finnish, Lapp and Hungarian. These two authors were thus the first to outline what was to become the classification of the Finno-Ugric (and later Uralic) family. This proposal received some of its initial impetus from the fact that these languages, unlike most of the other languages spoken in Europe, are not part of the Indo-European family.

In 1717, Swedish professor Olof Rudbeck proposed about 100 etymologies connecting Finnish and Hungarian, of which about 40 are still considered valid (Collinder, 1965). In the same year, the German scholar Johann Georg von Eckhart, in an essay published in Leibniz's Collectanea Etymologica, proposed for the first time a relation to the Samoyedic languages.

By 1770, all the languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric languages had been identified, almost 20 years before the traditional starting-point of Indo-European studies. Nonetheless, these relationships were not widely accepted. Hungarian intellectuals especially were not interested in the theory and preferred to assume connections with Turkic tribes, an attitude characterized by Ruhlen (1987) as due to "the wild unfettered Romanticism of the epoch". Still, in spite of this hostile climate, the Hungarian Jesuit János Sajnovics suggested a relationship between Hungarian and Lapp (Sami) in 1770, and in 1799, the Hungarian Sámuel Gyarmathi published the most complete work on Finno-Ugric to that date.

At the beginning of the 19th century, research on Uralic was thus more advanced than Indo-European research. But the rise of Indo-European comparative linguistics absorbed so much attention and enthusiasm that Uralic linguistics was all but eclipsed in Europe; in Hungary, the only European country that would have had a vested interest in the family (Finland and Estonia being under Russian rule), the political climate was too hostile for the development of Uralic comparative linguistics. Some progress was made, however, culminating in the work of the German linguist Josef Budenz, who for 20 years was the leading Uralic specialist in Hungary.

Another late-19th-century contribution is that of Hungarian linguist Ignác Halász, who published extensive comparative material of Finno-Ugric and Samoyedic in the 1890s, and whose work is at the base of today's wide acceptance of the Samoyed-Finno-Ugric relationship (i.e. the Uralic family).

During the 1990s, linguists Kalevi Wiik, Janos Pusztay, and Ago Künnap and historian Kyösti Julku announced a "breakthrough in Present-Day Uralistics", dating Proto-Finnic to 10,000 BC. The theory was almost entirely unsuccessful in the scientific community.[5]

  Classification of languages

Relative numbers of speakers of Uralic languages

The Uralic family currently comprises nine undisputed language groups. These are not necessarily primary branches of Uralic, but there is no consensus classification. (Some of the proposals are listed in the next section.) Obsolete names are displayed in italics.

There is also historical evidence of a number of extinct languages of uncertain affiliation:

  Traditional classification

All Uralic languages are thought to have descended, through independent processes of language change, from Proto-Uralic. The internal structure of the Uralic family has been debated since the family was first proposed. Doubts about the validity of most of the proposed higher-order branchings (grouping the nine undisputed families) are becoming more common.[6]

The traditional classification is as follows:[citation needed]

Three distinct subfamilies are usually recognized: Finno-Permic, Ugric and Samoyedic. It had formerly been widely accepted to group Finno-Permic and Ugric as the Finno-Ugric family, but especially in Finland there has been a growing tendency to cut the family tree lower by rejecting the Finno-Ugric intermediate protolanguage.[6][7] In more marked opposition to the traditionally accepted branching, a recent proposal unites Ugric and Samoyedic in an "East Uralic" group for which shared innovations can be noted.[8]

The Finno-Permic grouping still holds some support, though the arrangement of its subgroups is a matter of some dispute. Mordvinic is commonly seen as particularly closely related to or part of Finno-Lappic.[9] The term Volgaic (or Volga–Finnic) was used to denote a branch previously believed to include Mari, Mordvinic and a number of the extinct languages, but it is now obsolete[6] and considered a geographic classification rather than a linguistic one.

Within Ugric, uniting Mansi with Hungarian rather than Khanty has been a competing hypothesis to Ob-Ugric.

  Lexical isoglosses

Lexicostatistics has been used in defense of the traditional family tree. A recent re-evaluation of the evidence[10] however fails to find support for Finno-Ugric and Ugric, suggesting four lexically distinct branches (Finno-Permic, Hungarian, Ob-Ugric and Samoyedic).

One alternate proposal for a family tree, with emphasis on the development of numerals, is as follows:[11]

  • Uralic (*kektä "2", *wixti "5" / "10")
    • Samoyedic (*op "1", *ketä "2", *näkur "3", *tettə "4", *səmpəleŋkə "5", *məktut "6", *sejtwə "7", *wiət "10")
    • Finno-Ugric (*üki/*ükti "1", *kormi "3", *ńeljä "4", *wiiti "5", *kuuti "6", *luki "10")
      • Mansic
        • Mansi
        • Hungarian (hét "7"; replacement egy "1")
      • Finno-Khantic (reshaping *kolmi "3" on the analogy of "4")
        • Khanty
        • Finno-Permic (reshaping *kektä > *kakta)
          • Permic
          • Finno-Volgaic (*śećem "7")
            • Mari
            • Finno-Saamic (*kakteksa, *ükteksa "8, 9")
              • Saamic
              • Finno-Mordvinic (replacement *kümmen "10" (*luki- "to count", "to read out"))
                • Mordvinic
                • Finnic

  Phonological isoglosses

Another, more divergent from the standard, focusing on consonant isoglosses (which does not consider the position of the Samoyedic languages) is presented by Viitso (1997),[12] and refined in Viitso (2000)[13]:

  • Finno-Ugric
    • Western Finno-Ugric (Finno-Saamic) (consonant gradation)
      • Saamic
      • Finnic
    • Mari
    • Mordvinic
    • Permic-Ugric (*δ → *l)
      • Permic
      • Ugric (*s *š *ś → *ɬ *ɬ *s)
        • Hungarian
        • Khanty
        • Mansi

The grouping of the four bottom-level branches remains to some degree open to interpretation, with competing models of Finno-Saamic vs. Eastern Finno-Ugric (Mari, Mordvinic, Permic-Ugric; *k → ɣ between vowels, degemination of stops) and Finno-Volgaic (Finno-Saamic, Mari, Mordvinic; *δ́ → δ between vowels) vs. Permic-Ugric. Viitso finds no evidence for a Finno-Permic grouping.

Extending this approach to cover the Samoyedic languages suggests affinity with Ugric, resulting in the aforementioned East Uralic grouping, as it also shares the same sibilant developments. A further non-trivial Ugric-Samoyedic isogloss is the reduction *k, *x, *w → ɣ when before *i, and after a vowel (cf. *k → ɣ above), or adjacent to *t, *s, *š, or *ś.[8]

Finno-Ugric consonant developments after Viitso (2000); Samoyedic changes after Sammallahti (1988)

Saamic Finnic Mordvinic Mari Permic Hungarian Mansi Khanty Samoyedic
Medial lenition of *k no no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
Medial lenition of *p, *t no no yes yes yes yes no no no
Degemination no no yes yes yes yes yes yes yes
Consonant gradation yes yes no no no no no no yes
→ *δ → *t → *t → ∅ → *l → l → *l → *l → *r
*δ́ → *ĺ → ď <gy>, j → *ĺ → *j → *j
*s *s *s *s → *š *s → ∅ → *t → *ɬ → *t
→ *h
→ *ć → *s → s <sz> → *š → *s → *s
→ *s → *ś → č <cs> *ć ~ *š → *s
  • Note: Proto-Khanty *ɬ in many of the dialects yields *t; it is assumed this also happened in Mansi and Samoyedic.

The inverse relationship between consonant gradation and medial lenition of stops (the pattern also continuing within the three families where gradation is found) is noted by Helimski (1995): an original allophonic gradation system between voiceless and voiced stops would have been easily disrupted by a spreading of voicing to previously unvoiced stops as well.[14]

  Possible relations with other families

Many relationships between Uralic and other language families have been suggested, but none of these are generally accepted by linguists at the present time.


Theories proposing a close relationship with the Altaic languages were formerly popular, based on similarities in vocabulary as well as in grammatical and phonological features, in particular the similarities in the Uralic and Altaic pronouns and the presence of agglutination in both sets of languages, as well as vowel harmony in some. For example, the word for "language" is similar in Estonian (keel) and Mongolian (хэл (hel)). These theories are now generally rejected[15] and most such similarities are attributed to coincidence or language contact, and a few to possible relationship at a deeper genetic level.


The Indo-Uralic (or Uralo-Indo-European) theory suggests that Uralic and Indo-European are related at a fairly close level or, in its stronger form, that they are more closely related than either is to any other language family. It is viewed as certain by a few linguists and as possible by a larger number.


The Uralic–Yukaghir theory identifies Uralic and Yukaghir as independent members of a single language family. It is currently widely accepted that the similarities between Uralic and Yukaghir languages are due to ancient contacts.[16] Regardless, the theory is accepted by a few linguists and viewed as attractive by a somewhat larger number.


The Eskimo–Uralic theory associates Uralic with the Eskimo–Aleut languages. This is an old thesis whose antecedents go back to the 18th century. An important restatement of it is Bergsland 1959.


Uralo-Siberian is an expanded form of the Eskimo–Uralic hypothesis. It associates Uralic with Yukaghir, Chukotko-Kamchatkan, and Eskimo–Aleut. It was propounded by Michael Fortescue in 1998.


Nostratic associates Uralic, Indo-European, Altaic, and various other language families of Asia. The Nostratic theory was first propounded by Holger Pedersen in 1903 and subsequently revived by Vladislav Illich-Svitych and Aharon Dolgopolsky in the 1960s.


Eurasiatic resembles Nostratic in including Uralic, Indo-European, and Altaic, but differs from it in excluding the South Caucasian languages, Dravidian, and Afroasiatic and including Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Nivkh, Ainu, and Eskimo–Aleut. It was propounded by Joseph Greenberg in 2000–2002. Similar ideas had earlier been expressed by Heinrich Koppelmann (1933) and by Björn Collinder (1965:30–34).


The theory that the Dravidian languages display similarities with the Uralic language group, suggesting a prolonged period of contact in the past,[17] is popular amongst Dravidian linguists and has been supported by a number of scholars, including Robert Caldwell,[18] Thomas Burrow,[19] Kamil Zvelebil,[20] and Mikhail Andronov.[21] This theory has, however, been rejected by some specialists in Uralic languages,[22] and has in recent times also been criticised by other Dravidian linguists such as Bhadriraju Krishnamurti.[23]

All of these theories are minority views at the present time in Uralic studies.

  Other theories

Various unorthodox comparisons have been advanced such as Finno-Basque and Hungaro-Sumerian. These are considered spurious by specialists.[24]


Structural characteristics generally said to be typical of Uralic languages include:


  • extensive use of independent suffixes, AKA agglutination.
  • a large set of grammatical cases marked with agglutinative suffixes (13–14 cases on average; mainly later developments: Proto-Uralic is reconstructed with 6 cases), e.g.:
    • Erzya: 12 cases
    • Estonian: 14 cases
    • Finnish: 15 cases
    • Hungarian: 18 cases (Together 34 grammatical cases and case-like suffixes)
    • Inari Sami: 9 cases
    • Komi: in certain dialects as many as 27 cases
    • Moksha: 13 cases
    • Nenets: 7 cases
    • North Sami: 6 cases
    • Udmurt: 16 cases
    • Veps: 24 cases
  • unique Uralic case system, from which all modern Uralic languages derive their case systems.
    • nominative singular has no case suffix.
    • accusative and genitive suffixes are nasal sounds (-n, -m, etc.)
    • three-way distinction in the local case system, with each set of local cases being divided into forms corresponding roughly to "from", "to", and "in/at"; especially evident, e.g., in Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, which have several sets of local cases, such as the "inner", "outer" and "on top" systems in Hungarian, while in Finnish the "on top" forms have merged to the "outer" forms.
    • the Uralic locative suffix exists in all Uralic languages in various cases, e.g., Hungarian superessive, Finnish essive (-na), North Sami essive, Erzyan inessive, and Nenets locative.
    • the Uralic lative suffix exists in various cases in many Uralic languages, e.g., Hungarian illative, Finnish lative (-s as in rannemmas), Erzyan illative, Komi approximative, and Northern Sami locative.
  • a lack of grammatical gender.
  • negative verb, which exists in almost all Uralic languages, e.g., Nganasan, Enets, Nenets, Kamassian, Komi, Meadow Mari, Erzya (in the first preterite, the conjunctional, optative and imperative moods, sometimes there are alterations in choice of negative verb stems), North Sami (and other Samic languages), Finnish, Estonian, Karelian, etc. (Some innovative languages have lost this feature, e.g., Hungarian.)
  • use of postpositions as opposed to prepositions (prepositions are uncommon).
  • possessive suffixes.
  • dual, which exists, e.g., in the Samoyedic, Ob Ugrian and Samic languages.
  • plural markers -j (i) and -t (-d) have a common origin (e.g., in Finnish, Estonian, Erzya, Samic languages, Samoyedic languages). Hungarian, however, has -i- before the possessive suffixes and -k elsewhere. In the old orthographies, the plural marker -k was also used in the Samic languages.
  • Possession indicated with locative or dative constructions. For example, Finnish uses existential clauses; the subject is the possession, the verb is "to be" (the copula), and the possessor is grammatically a location and in the adessive case: "Minulla on kala", literally "At me is fish", or "I have a fish (some fish)". In Hungarian: "Van egy halam", literally "Have one fish", or "I have a fish", or "Nekem van..." ("I have...").
  • expressions that include a numeral are singular if they refer to things which form a single group, e.g., "négy csomó" in Hungarian, "njeallje čuolmma" in Northern Sami, "neli sõlme" in Estonian, and "neljä solmua" in Finnish, each of which means "four knots", but the literal approximation is "four knot". (This approximation is inaccurate for Finnish and Estonian, where the singular is in the partitive case, such that the number points to a part of a larger mass, like "four of knot(s)".)


  • vowel harmony: this is present in many but by no means all Uralic languages. It exists in Hungarian and various Finnic languages and is present to some degree elsewhere (Mordvinic, Mari, Khanty, and Samoyedic). It is lacking in Sami and Permic.[25]
  • large vowel inventories. For example, some Selkup varieties have over twenty different monophthongs, and Estonian has over twenty different diphthongs.
  • palatalization of consonants; in this context, palatalization means a secondary articulation, where the middle of the tongue is tense. For example, pairs like [ɲ] – [n], or [c] – [t] are contrasted in Hungarian, as in hattyú [hɒccuː] "swan". Some Sami languages, for example Skolt Sami, distinguish three degrees: plain <l> [l], palatalized <'l> [lʲ], and palatal <lj> [ʎ], where <'l> has a primary alveolar articulation, while <lj> has a primary palatal articulation. Original Uralic palatalization is phonemic, independent of the following vowel and traceable to the millennia-old Proto-Uralic. It is different from Russian palatalization, which is of more recent origin. The Finnic languages have lost palatalization, but the eastern varieties have reacquired it, so Finnic palatalization (where extant) was originally dependent on the following vowel and does not correlate to palatalization elsewhere in Uralic.
  • lack of phonologically contrastive tone.
  • In many Uralic languages, the stress is always on the first syllable, though Nganasan shows (essentially) penultimate stress, and a number of languages of the central region (Erzya, Mari, Udmurt and Komi-Permyak) synchronically exhibit a lexical accent. The Erzya language can vary its stress in words to give specific nuances to sentential meaning.


Basic vocabulary of about 200 words, including body parts (e.g., eye, heart, head, foot, mouth), family members (e.g., father, mother-in-law), animals (e.g., viper, partridge, fish), nature objects (e.g., tree, stone, nest, water), basic verbs (e.g., live, fall, run, make, see, suck, go, die, swim, know), basic pronouns (e.g., who, what, we, you, I), numerals (e.g., two, five); derivatives increase the number of common words.

  Little or no mutual intelligibility

For the most part, there is little or no mutual intelligibility between modern speakers of the various language sub groups. There are however word cognates, and the Estonian philologist Mall Hellam has even provided an example of an entire sentence that is mutually intelligible among the three most widely-spoken Uralic languages of Finnish, Estonian, and Hungarian, and traceable to the common ancestor of the three languages.[26][27]

The sentence reads:[27]

  • Estonian: Elav kala ujub vee all.
  • Finnish: Elävä kala ui veden alla.
  • Hungarian: Eleven hal úszik a víz alatt.
  • English: The living fish swims underwater

The University of Edinburgh linguist Geoffrey Pullum, who speaks some Finnish, is suspicious of claims of mutual intelligibility; in a post on his blog, he reported that a Finnish friend of his living in Hungary claimed that neither Finns nor Hungarians could understand the other language's version of the sentence.[28] Nevertheless, each word is traceable to Proto-Uralic, not a more recent loanword.

  Selected cognates

The following is a very brief selection of cognates in basic vocabulary across the Uralic family, which may serve to give an idea of the sound changes involved. This is not a list of translations: cognates have a common origin, but their meaning may be shifted and loanwords may have replaced them. In general, Finnic languages, and of them Finnish is considered to be the most conservative of the Uralic languages[citation needed], especially with regard to vocalism. (An example is porsas ("pig"), loaned from Proto-Indo-European *porḱos or pre-Proto-Indo-Iranian *porśos, unchanged since loaning save for loss of palatalization, *ś → s.)

English Proto-Uralic Finnish Estonian North Sami Inari Sami Erzya Mari Komi Khanty Mansi Hungarian Tundra Nenets
'fire' *tuli tuli (tule-) tuli dolla tulla tol tul tyl- tu
'fish' *kala kala kala guolli kyeli kal kol kul kul hal xalʲa
'nest' *pesä pesä pesa beassi peesi pize pəžaš poz pel pitʲii fészek pʲidʲa
'hand, arm' *käti käsi (käte-) käsi giehta kieta ked´ kit ki köt kaat kéz
'eye' *śilmä silmä silm čalbmi čalme śel´me šinča śin sem sam szem sæw°
'fathom' *süli syli süli salla solla sel´ šülö syl ɬöl täl öl tʲíbʲa
'vein / sinew' *sïxni suoni (suone-) soon suotna suona san šün sën ɬan taan ín te'
'bone' *luwi luu luu lovaža lu ly loγ luw le
'liver' *mïksa maksa maks makso mokš mus muγəl maat máj mud°
'urine' *kunśi kusi (kuse-) kusi gožža kužža kəž kudź kos- końć- húgy
'to go' *meni- mennä (men-) minema mannat moonnađ mija- mun- mən- men- megy-/men- mʲin-
'to live' *elä- elää (elä-) elama eallit eelliđ ila- ol- él- jilʲe-
'to die' *kaxli- kuolla (kuol-) koolema kulo- kola- kul- kol- kool- hal- xa-
'to wash' *mośki- mõskma1 muśke- muška- myśky- mos- masø-

1Võro dialect

(Orthographical notes: The hacek denotes postalveolar articulation ('ž' [ʒ], 'š' [ʃ], 'č' [t͡ʃ]), while the acute denotes a secondary palatal articulation ('ś' [sʲ]). The Finnish letter 'y' and the letter 'ü' in other languages represent a high close rounded vowel [y]. The letter 'đ' in the Sami languages represents a voiced dental fricative [ð]. The vowels 'ä' and 'ö' are the fronted [æ] and [ø], respectively.

  See also



  1. ^ Language family tree of Uralic on Ethnologue
  2. ^ Tommola, Hannu (2010). "Finnish among the Finno-Ugrian languages". Mood in the Languages of Europe. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 155. ISBN 90-272-0587-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=o3L8oKcbZtoC&pg=PA511&dq. 
  3. ^ The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia, p. 231.
  4. ^ Anderson, J.G.C. (ed.) (1938). Germania. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 
  5. ^ A 'Paradigm Shift' in Finnish Linguistic Prehistory Accessed 2010-04-05
  6. ^ a b c Salminen, Tapani (2002): Problems in the taxonomy of the Uralic languages in the light of modern comparative studies
  7. ^ Häkkinen, Kaisa 1984: Wäre es schon an der Zeit, den Stammbaum zu fällen? – Ural-Altaische Jahrbücher, Neue Folge 4.
  8. ^ a b Häkkinen, Jaakko 2009: Kantauralin ajoitus ja paikannus: perustelut puntarissa. – Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja 92. http://www.sgr.fi/susa/92/hakkinen.pdf
  9. ^ Bartens, Raija (1999) (in Finnish). Mordvalaiskielten rakenne ja kehitys. Helsinki: Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura. p. 13. ISBN 952-5150-22-4. 
  10. ^ Michalove, Peter A. (2002) The Classification of the Uralic Languages: Lexical Evidence from Finno-Ugric. In: Finnisch-Ugrische Forschungen, vol. 57
  11. ^ Janhunen, Juha (2009), "Proto-Uralic – what, where and when?" (pdf), Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran toimituksia 258, ISBN 978-952-5667-11-0, ISSN 0355-0230, http://www.sgr.fi/sust/sust258/sust258_janhunen.pdf 
  12. ^ Viitso, Tiit-Rein. Keelesugulus ja soome-ugri keelepuu. Akadeemia 9/5 (1997)
  13. ^ Viitso, Tiit-Rein. Finnic Affinity. Congressus Nonus Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum I: Orationes plenariae & Orationes publicae. (2000)
  14. ^ Helimski, Eugen. Proto-Uralic gradation: Continuation and traces. In Congressus Octavus Internationalis Fenno-Ugristarum. Pars I: Orationes plenariae et conspectus quinquennales. Jyväskylä, 1995. [1]
  15. ^ cf. e.g. Georg et al. 1999
  16. ^ Rédei, Károly 1999: Zu den uralisch-jukagirischen Sprachkontakten. – Finnisch-Ugrische Forschungen 55.
  17. ^ Tyler, Stephen (1968), "Dravidian and Uralian: the lexical evidence". Language 44:4. 798–812
  18. ^ Webb, Edward (1860). "Evidences of the Scythian Affinities of the Dravidian Languages, Condensed and Arranged from Rev. R. Caldwell's Comparative Dravidian Grammar". Journal of the American Oriental Society 7: 271–298. DOI:10.2307/592159. 
  19. ^ Burrow, T. (1944). "Dravidian Studies IV: The Body in Dravidian and Uralian". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 11 (2): 328–356. 
  20. ^ Zvelebil, Kamal (2006). Dravidian Languages. In Encyclopædia Britannica (DVD edition).
  21. ^ Andronov, Mikhail S. (1971), "Comparative Studies on the Nature of Dravidian-Uralian Parallels: A Peep into the Prehistory of Language Families". Proceedings of the Second International Conference of Tamil Studies Madras. 267–277.
  22. ^ Zvelebil, Kamal (1970), Comparative Dravidian Phonology Mouton, The Hauge. at p. 22 contains a bibliography of articles supporting and opposing the theory
  23. ^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003) The Dravidian Languages Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-77111-0 at p. 43.
  24. ^ Trask, R.L. The History of Basque Routledge: 1997 ISBN 0-415-13116-2
  25. ^ Austerlitz, Robert (1990). "Uralic Languages" (pp. 567–576) in Comrie, Bernard, editor. The World's Major Languages. Oxford University Press, Oxford (p. 573).
  26. ^ Pullum, Geoffrey K. (26 Dec 2005). "The Udmurtian code: Saving Finno-ugric in Russia", Language Log. http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/002729.html
  27. ^ a b "The dying fish swims in water", The Economist: pp. 73–74, December 24, 2005 – January 6, 2006, http://www.mari.ee/eng/articles/soc/2005/12/01.htm, retrieved 2009-12-21 
  28. ^ Pullum, Geoffrey K. (2005-12-26), "The Udmurtian code: saving Finno-Ugric in Russia", Language Log, http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/002729.html, retrieved 2009-12-21 


  • Abondolo, Daniel M. (editor). 1998. The Uralic Languages. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08198-X.
  • Austerlitz, Robert. 1990. "Uralic Languages" (pp. 567–576) in Comrie, Bernard, editor. The World's Major Languages. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Collinder, Björn. 1955. Fenno-Ugric Vocabulary: An Etymological Dictionary of the Uralic Languages. (Collective work.) Stockholm: Almqvist & Viksell. (Second, revised edition: Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag, 1977.)
  • Collinder, Björn. 1957. Survey of the Uralic Languages. Stockholm.
  • Collinder, Björn. 1960. Comparative Grammar of the Uralic Languages. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.
  • Collinder, Björn. 1965. An Introduction to the Uralic Languages. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Décsy, Gyula. 1990. The Uralic Protolanguage: A Comprehensive Reconstruction. Bloomington, Indiana.
  • Hajdu, Péter. 1963. Finnugor népek és nyelvek. Budapest: Gondolat kiadó.
  • Hajdu, Péter. 1975. Finni-Ugrian Languages and Peoples, translated by G. F. Cushing. London: André Deutsch. (English translation of the previous.)
  • Georg, Stefan, Peter A. Michalove, Alexis Manaster Ramer, and Paul J. Sidwell. 1999. "Telling general linguists about Altaic." Journal of Linguistics 35:65–98.
  • Koppelmann, Heinrich. 1933. Die eurasische Sprachfamilie. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
  • Laakso, Johanna. 1992. Uralilaiset kansat ('Uralic Peoples'). Porvoo – Helsinki – Juva. ISBN 951-0-16485-2.
  • Rédei, Károly (editor). 1986–88. Uralisches etymologisches Wörterbuch ('Uralic Etymological Dictionary'). Budapest.
  • Ruhlen, Merritt, A Guide to the World's languages, Stanford, California (1987), pp. 64–71.
  • Sammallahti, Pekka. 1988. "Historical phonology of the Uralic Languages." In The Uralic Languages, edited by Denis Sinor, pp. 478–554. Leiden: E.J. Brill.
  • Sinor, Denis (editor). 1988. The Uralic Languages: Description, History and Foreign Influences. Leiden: Brill.

  External classification

  • Bergsland, Knut (1959). "The Eskimo–Uralic hypothesis". Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne 61: 1–29. 
  • Fortescue, Michael. 1998. Language Relations across Bering Strait. London and New York: Cassell.
  • Greenberg, Joseph. 2000–2002. Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family, 2 volumes. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Pedersen, Holger (1903). "Türkische Lautgesetze". Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft 57: 535–561. 
  • Sauvageot, Aurélien. 1930. Recherches sur le vocabulaire des langues ouralo-altaïques ('Research on the Vocabulary of the Uralo-Altaic Languages'). Paris.

  Linguistic issues

  • Künnap, A. 2000. Contact-induced Perspectives in Uralic Linguistics. LINCOM Studies in Asian Linguistics 39. München: LINCOM Europa. ISBN 3-89586-964-3.
  • Wickman, Bo. 1955. The Form of the Object in the Uralic Languages. Uppsala: Lundequistska bokhandeln.

  External links

  "Rebel" Uralists



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