Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia
Like cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, VAIN comes in three stages, VAIN 1, 2, and 3. In VAIN 1, a third of the thickness of the cells in the vaginal skin are abnormal, while in VAIN 3, the full thickness is affected. VAIN 3 is also known as carcinoma in-situ, or stage 0 vaginal cancer.
One study found that most cases of VAIN were located in the upper third of the vagina, and were multifocal. In the same study, 65 and 10% patients with VAIN also had cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively.
In another study, most cases of VAIN went into remission after a single treatment, but about 5% of the cases studied progressed into a more serious condition despite treatment.
- ↑ Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. pp. 1192. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Diakomanolis E, Stefanidis K, Rodolakis A, Haidopoulos D, Sindos M, Chatzipappas I, Michalas S. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: report of 102 cases. European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology. 23(5):457-459. PMID 12440826.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Cancer Research UK (2002). The stages of cancer of the vagina. CancerHelp UK. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
- ↑ Cancer Research UK (2002). Risks and causes of vaginal cancer. CancerHelp UK. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Dodge JA, Eltabbakh GH, Mount SL, Walker RP, Morgan A (2001). Clinical features and risk of recurrence among patients with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecologic Oncology. 83(2):363-369. PMID 11606098. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
- ↑ Sillman FH, Fruchter RG, Chen YS, Camilien L, Sedlis A, McTigue E (1997). Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: risk factors for persistence, recurrence, and invasion and its management. American Journal of Obstettrics and Gynecology. 176(1):93-99. PMID 9024096. Retrieved January 3, 2008.
- Stenchever (2001). Comprehensive Gynecology, 4th ed.de:Vaginale intraepitheliale Neoplasie
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